Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing

Yukihiro Chiba, J. H. Bryce, V. Goodfellow, James Mackinlay, R. C. Agu, J. M. Brosnan, T. A. Bringhurst, B. Harrison

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    27 Citations (Scopus)


    Our study showed that sorghum and millet followed a similar pattern of changes when they were malted under similar conditions. When the malt from these cereals was mashed, both cereal types produced wide spectra of substrates (sugars and amino acids) that are required for yeast fermentation when malted at either lower or higher temperatures. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 degrees C used in malting both cereal types, production of reducing sugars and that of free amino nitrogen (FAN) were similar. This is an important quality attribute for both cereals because it implies that variation in temperature during the malting of sorghum and millet, especially when malting temperature is difficult to control, and also reflecting temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars required by yeast during fermentation. Such consistency in the availability of yeast food (substrates) for metabolism during fermentation when sorghum and millet are malted at various temperatures is likely to reduce processing issues when their malts are used for brewing. Although sorghum has gained wide application in the brewing industry, and has been used extensively in brewing gluten-free beer on industrial scale, this is not the case with millet. The work described here provides novel information regarding the potential of millet for brewing. When both cereals were malted, the results obtained for millet in this study followed patterns similar to those of sorghum. This suggests that millet, in terms of sugars and amino acids, can play a role similar to that of sorghum in the brewing industry. This further suggests that millet, like sorghum, would be a good raw material for brewing gluten-free beer. Inclusion of millet as a brewing raw material will increase the availability of suitable materials (raw material sustainability) for use in the production of gluten-free beer, beverages, and other products. The availability of wider range of raw materials will not only help to reduce costs of beer production, but by extension, the benefit of reduced cost of production can be gained by consumers of gluten-free beer as the product would be cheaper and more widely available.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3745-3753
    Number of pages9
    JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    Issue number14
    Publication statusPublished - 11 Apr 2012


    Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this