Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains rice and buckwheat during malting and mashing

R. C. Agu, Yukihiro Chiba, V. Goodfellow, James Mackinlay, J. M. Brosnan, T. A. Bringhurst, F. R. Jack, B. Harrison, S. Y. Pearson, J. H. Bryce

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    42 Citations (Scopus)


    This study examined the performance of rice and buckwheat when malted under various temperature conditions and for different lengths of time. The mashed malts produced from both rice and buckwheat contained a wide spectra of sugars and amino acids that are required for yeast fermentation, regardless of malting temperature. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 degrees C used, production of reducing sugars and free amino nitrogen (FAN) followed similar patterns. This implies that temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars, required by yeast during fermentation, from these grains. Such consistency in the availability of yeast substrates is likely to reduce differences in processing when these malts are used for brewing. This study revealed that, while rice malt consistently produced more maltose than glucose, buckwheat malt gave several times more glucose than maltose, across all germination temperatures. Buckwheat malt also produced more soluble and free amino nitrogen than rice malt. Unlike sorghum, which has gained wide application in the brewing industry for the production of gluten-free beer, the use of rice and buckwheat is minimal. This study provides novel information regarding the potential of rice and buckwheat for brewing. Both followed similar patterns to sorghum, suggesting that they could play a similar role to sorghum in the brewing industry. Inclusion of rice and buckwheat as brewing raw materials will increase the availability of suitable materials for use in the production of gluten-free beer, potentially making it more sustainable, cheaper, and more widely available,

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)10147-10154
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    Issue number40
    Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2012


    Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains rice and buckwheat during malting and mashing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this