Dual Forward-Backward Unfolded Network for Flexible Plug-and-Play

Audrey Repetti, Matthieu Terris, Yves Wiaux, Jean-Christophe Pesquet

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)
121 Downloads (Pure)


Proximal methods have been extensively used to find maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimates of unknown images from degraded measurement. Recently, they have been mixed with neural networks (NN) to further improve the reconstruction quality. Two approaches can be distinguished: unfolded NNs, implementing a given iteration number of an optimisation algorithm, and plug-and-play (PnP) algorithms, incorporating NNs in existing optimisation algorithms. Unfolded NNs usually incorporate the measurement operator in the learning process, which can be prohibitive for applications with non-fixed measurement operators. PnP do not have this drawback, but involved NNs still depend on the underlying statistical models (e.g., higher noise level on the measurements requires stronger denoisers). In this work, we propose a PnP algorithm based on forward-backward (FB) iterations, where the learned denoiser is an unfolded NN based on dual-FB iterations. This NN is built to mimic a Gaussian denoiser from a MAP viewpoint. This allows us to introduce a regularisation parameter in the model to tune the regularization strength, similarly to standard variational approaches. This has the advantage of making the learned NN more adaptive to a variety of inverse problem statistical models, without requiring to train the NN for different noise levels.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication30th European Signal Processing Conference 2022
Number of pages5
ISBN (Electronic)9789082797091
Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2022
Event30th European Signal Processing Conference 2022 - Belgrade, Serbia
Duration: 29 Aug 20222 Sept 2022
Conference number: 30


Conference30th European Signal Processing Conference 2022
Abbreviated titleEUSIPCO 2022
Internet address


  • Dual forward-backward
  • image restoration
  • inverse problem
  • plug-and-play algorithm
  • unfolded network

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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