Distinguishing approach, methodology, method, procedure and technique in process systems engineering

Viknesh Andiappan, Yoke Kin Wan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Since the 1950s, the field of process systems engineering (PSE) research experienced growth. PSE research has contributed several ways in which a process or energy system could be designed. To describe the aforementioned “ways” to design process or energy systems, several papers have used varied terminologies such as approach, methodology, method, procedure and technique (AMMPT). These five terms have been used frequently and interchangeably. However, these five terms do possess distinct meanings and must be used appropriately. In this respect, we argue for the need for a systematic framework to clearly distinguish AMMPT terminologies from the PSE perspective. In this paper, we offer a perspective on AMMPT terminologies and provide a conceptual framework to understand the distinctions between them as well as how they could be used appropriately in PSE. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-555
Number of pages9
JournalClean Technologies and Environmental Policy
Issue number3
Early online date10 Feb 2020
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • Approach
  • Method
  • Methodology
  • Procedure
  • Process systems engineering
  • Technique

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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