Dispersion stability of tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles in polar solvents and water aided by ultrasonication

Chin Khai Ong, Weng Nam Lee, Ling Hong Lim, Wuyi Chong, Jingwen Chew, Yasuhiko Hayashi, Takeshi Nishikawa, Patrik Ohberg, Harith Ahmad, Yuen Kiat Yap*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Dispersion stability of tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles dispersed in N-Methy-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP), dimethylformamide (DMF) and distilled water assisted by ultrasonication was investigated, aiming to identify a suitable liquid medium to effectively disperse tin(IV) oxide for many useful applications. The dispersions’ stability was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and Zeta potential. The results show that distilled water has the highest stability with optimum sonication of 1 h. NMP shows better stability and consistency than DMF at different sonication timings. Good agreement between ultraviolet–visible absorbance and Zeta potentials shows that both distilled water and NMP are good mediums to produce highly stable tin(V) oxide dispersion.
Original languageEnglish
Article number035002
JournalJapanese Journal of Applied Physics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2023


  • Nanoscale science and technology
  • Regular Paper
  • dispersability
  • metal oxides
  • nanoparticles
  • tin(IV) oxide
  • ultrasonication


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