Dioxazine pigments

Robert Christie*, Adrian Abel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This chapter provides an overview of the structural and synthetic chemistry, and the industrial applications, of dioxazine pigments, a small group of high performance organic pigments. The color violet (or purple) has frequently assumed a prominent position in history, on account of its rarity and cost. The natural colorant Tyrian purple and the first synthetic textile dye, Mauveine, are prime examples of this unique historical feature. CI Pigment Violet 23, also referred to as Dioxazine Violet or Carbazole Violet, is one of the most universally used organic pigments, by far the most important industrial pigment in the violet shade area. Dioxazine Violet is also unique as the dominant industrial violet pigment providing a brilliant, intense violet color and an excellent all-round set of fastness properties. The pigment has a polycyclic molecular structure, originally described wrongly as a linear arrangement, and later shown to adopt an S-shaped arrangement on the basis of X-ray structural analysis. Two other dioxazine pigments are of rather lesser importance. The synthesis and manufacturing route to CI Pigment Violet 23 is described in the review. Finally, a survey of the principal current applications of the individual dioxazine pigments is presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)889-896
Number of pages8
JournalPhysical Sciences Reviews
Issue number12
Early online date29 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • carbazole
  • CI Pigment Violet 23
  • dioxazine pigments
  • S-shaped structure
  • violet color

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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