DIGITALLY ENCODED WOOD: 4D Printing of Hygroscopic Actuators for Architectural Responsive Skins

Rana El-Dabaa, Islam Salem, Sherif Abdelmohsen

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


This paper exploits passive responsive actuators as a passive approach for adaptive façades. The study encodes the embedded hygroscopic parameters of wood through 4D printing of laminated wooden composites as a responsive wooden actuator. Several experiments focus on controlling the printed hygroscopic parameters based on the effect of 3D printing patterns and infill height on the wooden angle of curvature. We present a set of controlled printed hygroscopic parameters that stretch the limits in controlling the response of wood to humidity instead of the typical natural properties of wood. The results show a passive programmed selfactuated mechanism that can enhance responsive façade design with zero energy consumption through utilizing both material science and additive manufacturing mechanisms. This passive responsive mechanism can be utilized in adaptive facades for dynamic shading configurations.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event9th ASCAAD International Conference 2021 - Cairo, Egypt
Duration: 2 Mar 20214 Mar 2021


Conference9th ASCAAD International Conference 2021
Abbreviated titleASCAAD 2021


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