Development of Porous Epoxy Micro-Beads Using Ammonium Bicarbonate through a Single Epoxy Droplet in Corn Oil

Anusha Leemsuthep, Zunaida Zakaria, Varaporn Tanrattanakul, Suganti Ramarad, Mathialagan Muniyadi, Tomasz Jaruga, Yamuna Munusamy, Izabela Wnuk, Paweł Pietrusiewicz

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This paper explored the effects of ammonium bicarbonate and different ratios of epoxy to polyamide on the formation of porous epoxy micro-beads through a single epoxy droplet. A single drop of a mixture, consisting of epoxy, polyamide, and ammonium bicarbonate, was dropped into heated corn oil at a temperature of 100 °C. An epoxy droplet was formed due to the immiscibility of the epoxy mixture and corn oil. The ammonium bicarbonate within this droplet underwent a decomposition reaction, while the epoxy and polyamide underwent a curing reaction, to form porous epoxy micro-beads. The result showed that the higher ammonium bicarbonate content in the porous, epoxy micro-beads increased the decomposition rate up to 11.52 × 10−3 cm3/s. In addition, a higher total volume of gas was generated when a higher ammonium bicarbonate content was decomposed. This led to the formation of porous epoxy micro-beads with a smaller particle size, lower specific gravity, and better thermal stability. At an epoxy to polyamide ratio of 10:6, many smaller micro-beads, with particle sizes ranging from 201 to 400 μm, were obtained at an ammonium bicarbonate content of 10 phr. Moreover, the porous epoxy micro-beads with open pores were shown to have a low specific gravity of about 0.93 and high thermal stability at a high ammonium bicarbonate content. Based on the findings, it was concluded that porous epoxy micro-beads were successfully produced using a single epoxy droplet in heated corn oil, where their shape and particle size depended on the content of ammonium bicarbonate and the ratio of epoxy to polyamide used.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2282
Issue number9
Early online date28 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2021


  • Blowing agent
  • Decomposition gas
  • Emulsion
  • Stoichiometry
  • Thermal stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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