Eulerian two fluid approach is generally used to simulate gas-solid flows in industrial circulating fluidized beds. Because of limitation of computational resources, simulations of large vessels are usually performed by using too coarse grid. Coarse grid simulations can not resolve fine flow scales which can play an important role in the dynamic behaviour of the beds. In particular, cancelling out the particle segregation effect of small scales leads to an inadequate modelling of the mean interfacial momentum transfer between phases and particulate shear stresses by secondary effect. Then, an appropriate modelling accounting for influences of unresolved structures has to be proposed for coarse-grid simulations. For this purpose, computational grids are refined to get mesh-independent result where statistical quantities do not change with further mesh refinement for a 3-D periodic circulating fluidized bed. The 3-D periodic circulating fluidized is a simple academic configuration where gas-solid flow conducted with A-type particles is periodically driven along the opposite direction of the gravity. The particulate momentum and agitation equations are filtered by the volume averaging and the importance of additional terms due to the averaging procedure are investigated by budget analyses using the mesh independent result. Results show that the filtered momentum equation of phases can be computed on coarse grid simulations but sub-grid drift velocity due to the sub-grid correlation between the local fluid velocity and the local particle volume fraction and particulate sub-grid shear stresses must be taken into account. In this study, we propose functional and structural models for sub-grid drift velocity, written in terms of the difference between the gas velocity-solid volume fraction correlation and the multiplication of the filtered gas velocity with the filtered solid volume fraction. Particulate sub-grid shear stresses are closed by models proposed for single turbulent flows. Models’ predictabilities are investigated by a priori tests and they are validated by coarse-grid simulations of 3-D periodic circulating, dense fluidized beds and experimental data of industrial scale circulating fluidized bed in manner of a posteriori tests.
|Award date||18 Oct 2011|
|Publication status||Published - 2011|