Development of a N-type GM-PHD Filter for Multiple Target, Multiple Type Visual Tracking

Nathanael L. Baisa, Andrew Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)
54 Downloads (Pure)


We propose a new framework that extends the standard Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter for multiple targets having N⩾2 different types based on Random Finite Set theory, taking into account not only background clutter, but also confusions among detections of different target types, which are in general different in character from background clutter. Under Gaussianity and linearity assumptions, our framework extends the existing Gaussian mixture (GM) implementation of the standard PHD filter to create a N-type GM-PHD filter. The methodology is applied to real video sequences by integrating object detectors’ information into this filter for two scenarios. For both cases, Munkres's variant of the Hungarian assignment algorithm is used to associate tracked target identities between frames. This approach is evaluated and compared to both raw detection and independent GM-PHD filters using the Optimal Sub-pattern Assignment metric and discrimination rate. This shows the improved performance of our strategy on real video sequences.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)257-271
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
Early online date17 Jan 2019
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019


  • Gaussian mixture
  • Multiple target filtering
  • N-type GM-PHD filter
  • OSPA metric
  • PHD filter
  • Random finite sets
  • Visual tracking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Media Technology
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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