Dermal exposure from transfer of lubricants and fuels by consumers

Karen S. Galea*, Alice Davis, Davis Todd, Laura Maccalman, Carolyn McGonagle, John W. Cherrie

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    11 Citations (Scopus)


    Consumer uses of fuels and lubricants in Europe are subject t. The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of CHemicals (REACH) legislation. Ten volunteers completed a series of exposure situations to simulate filling a vehicle fuel tank with diesel (ES1 Diesel), adding lubricant to a car engine (two situations, one filling point easier to reach (ES2 Easy) tha. The other (ES3 Hard)) and lubricating a bicycle chain (ES4 Bike). Dermal exposure t. The hands and forearms was assessed using a wipe sampling method. A high proportion of samples was less tha. The limit of detection (ES1=38%, ES3=60%, ES2 and 4, both 78%). In ES1 Diesel, dermal exposure t. The hands and forearms ranged from <0.25 μg/cm 2 to 96.21 μg/cm 2. Significantly higher dermal exposure was observed when a lower level of care was taken to complet. The task. In ES2 Easy and ES3 Hard. The hand and forearm results ranged from <0.1 μg/cm 2 to 3.33 μg/cm 2 and from <0.1 μg/cm 2 to 3.54 μg/cm 2, respectively. In ES4 Bike. The hand and forearm exposures ranged from <0.35 μg/cm 2 to 5.25 μg/cm 2. Not all volunteers fully complied wit. The ES4 instructions, thus highlighting that this situation may have more variability in consumer behaviour. The ratio o. The amount measured o. The hands and forearms t. The amount of product handled for ES1 Diesel, ES2 Easy and ES3 Hard was less than 0.0001%, for ES4 Bike it was 0.04%. Mixed effect models showed tha. The between and within volunteer variations are small for all except ES1 Diesel, wher. The within volunteer variation was relatively large (likely due t. The few high measurements). This study reports dermal exposure measurement data, which will be of value when updating REACH and other exposure assessments for these, and similar, petroleum products.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)665-672
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014


    • consumer
    • dermal exposure
    • petroleum products
    • volunteer study
    • wipe sampling

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Pollution
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
    • Toxicology
    • Epidemiology


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