Database of diazotrophs in global ocean

Abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates

Y.-W. Luo, S. C. Doney, L. A. Anderson, M. Benavides, I. Berman-Frank, Antonio Bode, Stéphanie Bonnet, K. H. Boström, D. Böttjer, D. G. Capone, E. J. Carpenter, Y. L. Chen, M. J. Church, J. E. Dore, L. I. Falcón, Armando Fernández-Prieto, R. A. Foster, K. Furuya, F. Gómez, K. Gundersen & 29 others A. M. Hynes, D. M. Karl, S. Kitajima, R. J. Langlois, J. LaRoche, R. M. Letelier, E. Marañón, D. J. McGillicuddy, P. H. Moisander, C. M. Moore, B. Mouriño-Carballido, M. R. Mulholland, J. A. Needoba, K. M. Orcutt, A. J. Poulton, E. Rahav, P. Raimbault, A. P. Rees, L. Riemann, T. Shiozaki, A. Subramaniam, T. Tyrrell, K. A. Turk-Kubo, M. Varela, T. A. Villareal, E. A. Webb, A. E. White, J. Wu, J. P. Zehr

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Marine N 2 fixing microorganisms, termed di-azotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen (N 2) to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences pri-mary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abun-dances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes) and N 2 fixation rates. Biomass con-version factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is lim-ited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geomet-ric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N 2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (52–73) Tg N yr −1 and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 2.1 (1.4–3.1) Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (43–150) Tg C from nifH-based abun-dances. Reporting the arithmetic mean and one standard error instead, these three global estimates are 140 ± 9.2 Tg N yr −1 , 18 ± 1.8 Tg C and 590 ± 70 Tg C, respectively. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about ± 70 %. It was recently established that the most commonly applied method used to measure N 2 fixation has underestimated the true rates. As a result, one can expect that future rate measurements will shift the mean N 2 fixation rate upward and may result in significantly higher estimates for the global N 2 fixation. The evolving database can never-theless be used to study spatial and temporal distributions and variations of marine N 2 fixation, to validate geochemi-cal estimates and to parameterize and validate biogeochem-ical models, keeping in mind that future rate measurements may rise in the future. The database is stored in PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.774851).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEarth System Science Data
Place of PublicationGöttingen, Germany
PublisherCopernicus Publications
Pages47-73
Number of pages27
ISBN (Print)1866-3516
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2012

Publication series

NameEarth System Science Data
Number1
Volume4

Fingerprint

global ocean
nitrogen fixation
fixation
biomass
pelagic ecosystem
marine ecosystem
functional group
nitrogen
ocean
upper ocean
rate
temporal distribution
targeting
temporal variation
microorganism
phytoplankton
assay
spatial distribution
organic matter
productivity

Cite this

Luo, Y-W., Doney, S. C., Anderson, L. A., Benavides, M., Berman-Frank, I., Bode, A., ... Zehr, J. P. (2012). Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: Abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates. In Earth System Science Data (pp. 47-73). (Earth System Science Data; Vol. 4, No. 1). Göttingen, Germany: Copernicus Publications. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-4-47-2012
Luo, Y.-W. ; Doney, S. C. ; Anderson, L. A. ; Benavides, M. ; Berman-Frank, I. ; Bode, Antonio ; Bonnet, Stéphanie ; Boström, K. H. ; Böttjer, D. ; Capone, D. G. ; Carpenter, E. J. ; Chen, Y. L. ; Church, M. J. ; Dore, J. E. ; Falcón, L. I. ; Fernández-Prieto, Armando ; Foster, R. A. ; Furuya, K. ; Gómez, F. ; Gundersen, K. ; Hynes, A. M. ; Karl, D. M. ; Kitajima, S. ; Langlois, R. J. ; LaRoche, J. ; Letelier, R. M. ; Marañón, E. ; McGillicuddy, D. J. ; Moisander, P. H. ; Moore, C. M. ; Mouriño-Carballido, B. ; Mulholland, M. R. ; Needoba, J. A. ; Orcutt, K. M. ; Poulton, A. J. ; Rahav, E. ; Raimbault, P. ; Rees, A. P. ; Riemann, L. ; Shiozaki, T. ; Subramaniam, A. ; Tyrrell, T. ; Turk-Kubo, K. A. ; Varela, M. ; Villareal, T. A. ; Webb, E. A. ; White, A. E. ; Wu, J. ; Zehr, J. P. / Database of diazotrophs in global ocean : Abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates. Earth System Science Data. Göttingen, Germany : Copernicus Publications, 2012. pp. 47-73 (Earth System Science Data; 1).
@inbook{7e4b9d3c0d404ac6ab6d3aea6a8bbc33,
title = "Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: Abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates",
abstract = "Marine N 2 fixing microorganisms, termed di-azotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen (N 2) to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences pri-mary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abun-dances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes) and N 2 fixation rates. Biomass con-version factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is lim-ited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geomet-ric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N 2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (52–73) Tg N yr −1 and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 2.1 (1.4–3.1) Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (43–150) Tg C from nifH-based abun-dances. Reporting the arithmetic mean and one standard error instead, these three global estimates are 140 ± 9.2 Tg N yr −1 , 18 ± 1.8 Tg C and 590 ± 70 Tg C, respectively. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about ± 70 {\%}. It was recently established that the most commonly applied method used to measure N 2 fixation has underestimated the true rates. As a result, one can expect that future rate measurements will shift the mean N 2 fixation rate upward and may result in significantly higher estimates for the global N 2 fixation. The evolving database can never-theless be used to study spatial and temporal distributions and variations of marine N 2 fixation, to validate geochemi-cal estimates and to parameterize and validate biogeochem-ical models, keeping in mind that future rate measurements may rise in the future. The database is stored in PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.774851).",
author = "Y.-W. Luo and Doney, {S. C.} and Anderson, {L. A.} and M. Benavides and I. Berman-Frank and Antonio Bode and St{\'e}phanie Bonnet and Bostr{\"o}m, {K. H.} and D. B{\"o}ttjer and Capone, {D. G.} and Carpenter, {E. J.} and Chen, {Y. L.} and Church, {M. J.} and Dore, {J. E.} and Falc{\'o}n, {L. I.} and Armando Fern{\'a}ndez-Prieto and Foster, {R. A.} and K. Furuya and F. G{\'o}mez and K. Gundersen and Hynes, {A. M.} and Karl, {D. M.} and S. Kitajima and Langlois, {R. J.} and J. LaRoche and Letelier, {R. M.} and E. Mara{\~n}{\'o}n and McGillicuddy, {D. J.} and Moisander, {P. H.} and Moore, {C. M.} and B. Mouri{\~n}o-Carballido and Mulholland, {M. R.} and Needoba, {J. A.} and Orcutt, {K. M.} and Poulton, {A. J.} and E. Rahav and P. Raimbault and Rees, {A. P.} and L. Riemann and T. Shiozaki and A. Subramaniam and T. Tyrrell and Turk-Kubo, {K. A.} and M. Varela and Villareal, {T. A.} and Webb, {E. A.} and White, {A. E.} and J. Wu and Zehr, {J. P.}",
year = "2012",
month = "8",
day = "31",
doi = "10.5194/essd-4-47-2012",
language = "English",
isbn = "1866-3516",
series = "Earth System Science Data",
publisher = "Copernicus Publications",
number = "1",
pages = "47--73",
booktitle = "Earth System Science Data",
address = "Germany",

}

Luo, Y-W, Doney, SC, Anderson, LA, Benavides, M, Berman-Frank, I, Bode, A, Bonnet, S, Boström, KH, Böttjer, D, Capone, DG, Carpenter, EJ, Chen, YL, Church, MJ, Dore, JE, Falcón, LI, Fernández-Prieto, A, Foster, RA, Furuya, K, Gómez, F, Gundersen, K, Hynes, AM, Karl, DM, Kitajima, S, Langlois, RJ, LaRoche, J, Letelier, RM, Marañón, E, McGillicuddy, DJ, Moisander, PH, Moore, CM, Mouriño-Carballido, B, Mulholland, MR, Needoba, JA, Orcutt, KM, Poulton, AJ, Rahav, E, Raimbault, P, Rees, AP, Riemann, L, Shiozaki, T, Subramaniam, A, Tyrrell, T, Turk-Kubo, KA, Varela, M, Villareal, TA, Webb, EA, White, AE, Wu, J & Zehr, JP 2012, Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: Abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates. in Earth System Science Data. Earth System Science Data, no. 1, vol. 4, Copernicus Publications, Göttingen, Germany, pp. 47-73. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-4-47-2012

Database of diazotrophs in global ocean : Abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates. / Luo, Y.-W.; Doney, S. C.; Anderson, L. A.; Benavides, M.; Berman-Frank, I.; Bode, Antonio; Bonnet, Stéphanie; Boström, K. H.; Böttjer, D.; Capone, D. G.; Carpenter, E. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Church, M. J.; Dore, J. E.; Falcón, L. I.; Fernández-Prieto, Armando; Foster, R. A.; Furuya, K.; Gómez, F.; Gundersen, K.; Hynes, A. M.; Karl, D. M.; Kitajima, S.; Langlois, R. J.; LaRoche, J.; Letelier, R. M.; Marañón, E.; McGillicuddy, D. J.; Moisander, P. H.; Moore, C. M.; Mouriño-Carballido, B.; Mulholland, M. R.; Needoba, J. A.; Orcutt, K. M.; Poulton, A. J.; Rahav, E.; Raimbault, P.; Rees, A. P.; Riemann, L.; Shiozaki, T.; Subramaniam, A.; Tyrrell, T.; Turk-Kubo, K. A.; Varela, M.; Villareal, T. A.; Webb, E. A.; White, A. E.; Wu, J.; Zehr, J. P.

Earth System Science Data. Göttingen, Germany : Copernicus Publications, 2012. p. 47-73 (Earth System Science Data; Vol. 4, No. 1).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

TY - CHAP

T1 - Database of diazotrophs in global ocean

T2 - Abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates

AU - Luo, Y.-W.

AU - Doney, S. C.

AU - Anderson, L. A.

AU - Benavides, M.

AU - Berman-Frank, I.

AU - Bode, Antonio

AU - Bonnet, Stéphanie

AU - Boström, K. H.

AU - Böttjer, D.

AU - Capone, D. G.

AU - Carpenter, E. J.

AU - Chen, Y. L.

AU - Church, M. J.

AU - Dore, J. E.

AU - Falcón, L. I.

AU - Fernández-Prieto, Armando

AU - Foster, R. A.

AU - Furuya, K.

AU - Gómez, F.

AU - Gundersen, K.

AU - Hynes, A. M.

AU - Karl, D. M.

AU - Kitajima, S.

AU - Langlois, R. J.

AU - LaRoche, J.

AU - Letelier, R. M.

AU - Marañón, E.

AU - McGillicuddy, D. J.

AU - Moisander, P. H.

AU - Moore, C. M.

AU - Mouriño-Carballido, B.

AU - Mulholland, M. R.

AU - Needoba, J. A.

AU - Orcutt, K. M.

AU - Poulton, A. J.

AU - Rahav, E.

AU - Raimbault, P.

AU - Rees, A. P.

AU - Riemann, L.

AU - Shiozaki, T.

AU - Subramaniam, A.

AU - Tyrrell, T.

AU - Turk-Kubo, K. A.

AU - Varela, M.

AU - Villareal, T. A.

AU - Webb, E. A.

AU - White, A. E.

AU - Wu, J.

AU - Zehr, J. P.

PY - 2012/8/31

Y1 - 2012/8/31

N2 - Marine N 2 fixing microorganisms, termed di-azotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen (N 2) to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences pri-mary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abun-dances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes) and N 2 fixation rates. Biomass con-version factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is lim-ited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geomet-ric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N 2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (52–73) Tg N yr −1 and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 2.1 (1.4–3.1) Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (43–150) Tg C from nifH-based abun-dances. Reporting the arithmetic mean and one standard error instead, these three global estimates are 140 ± 9.2 Tg N yr −1 , 18 ± 1.8 Tg C and 590 ± 70 Tg C, respectively. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about ± 70 %. It was recently established that the most commonly applied method used to measure N 2 fixation has underestimated the true rates. As a result, one can expect that future rate measurements will shift the mean N 2 fixation rate upward and may result in significantly higher estimates for the global N 2 fixation. The evolving database can never-theless be used to study spatial and temporal distributions and variations of marine N 2 fixation, to validate geochemi-cal estimates and to parameterize and validate biogeochem-ical models, keeping in mind that future rate measurements may rise in the future. The database is stored in PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.774851).

AB - Marine N 2 fixing microorganisms, termed di-azotrophs, are a key functional group in marine pelagic ecosystems. The biological fixation of dinitrogen (N 2) to bioavailable nitrogen provides an important new source of nitrogen for pelagic marine ecosystems and influences pri-mary productivity and organic matter export to the deep ocean. As one of a series of efforts to collect biomass and rates specific to different phytoplankton functional groups, we have constructed a database on diazotrophic organisms in the global pelagic upper ocean by compiling about 12 000 direct field measurements of cyanobacterial diazotroph abun-dances (based on microscopic cell counts or qPCR assays targeting the nifH genes) and N 2 fixation rates. Biomass con-version factors are estimated based on cell sizes to convert abundance data to diazotrophic biomass. The database is lim-ited spatially, lacking large regions of the ocean especially in the Indian Ocean. The data are approximately log-normal distributed, and large variances exist in most sub-databases with non-zero values differing 5 to 8 orders of magnitude. Reporting the geometric mean and the range of one geomet-ric standard error below and above the geometric mean, the pelagic N 2 fixation rate in the global ocean is estimated to be 62 (52–73) Tg N yr −1 and the pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean is estimated to be 2.1 (1.4–3.1) Tg C from cell counts and to 89 (43–150) Tg C from nifH-based abun-dances. Reporting the arithmetic mean and one standard error instead, these three global estimates are 140 ± 9.2 Tg N yr −1 , 18 ± 1.8 Tg C and 590 ± 70 Tg C, respectively. Uncertainties related to biomass conversion factors can change the estimate of geometric mean pelagic diazotrophic biomass in the global ocean by about ± 70 %. It was recently established that the most commonly applied method used to measure N 2 fixation has underestimated the true rates. As a result, one can expect that future rate measurements will shift the mean N 2 fixation rate upward and may result in significantly higher estimates for the global N 2 fixation. The evolving database can never-theless be used to study spatial and temporal distributions and variations of marine N 2 fixation, to validate geochemi-cal estimates and to parameterize and validate biogeochem-ical models, keeping in mind that future rate measurements may rise in the future. The database is stored in PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.774851).

U2 - 10.5194/essd-4-47-2012

DO - 10.5194/essd-4-47-2012

M3 - Chapter

SN - 1866-3516

T3 - Earth System Science Data

SP - 47

EP - 73

BT - Earth System Science Data

PB - Copernicus Publications

CY - Göttingen, Germany

ER -

Luo Y-W, Doney SC, Anderson LA, Benavides M, Berman-Frank I, Bode A et al. Database of diazotrophs in global ocean: Abundance, biomass and nitrogen fixation rates. In Earth System Science Data. Göttingen, Germany: Copernicus Publications. 2012. p. 47-73. (Earth System Science Data; 1). https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-4-47-2012