Cooperative Integration of Harvesting RF Sections for Passive RFID Communication

Gianfranco Andia Vera*, Dahmane Allane, Apostolos Georgiadis, Ana Collado, Yvan Duroc, Smail Tedjini

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a novel cooperative composite energy harvesting system that consists in the association of a traditional passive UHF Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip with an Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Circuit (EEH-C). The objective is to exploit the i-v nonlinearity of the rectifier by applying a signal with time-varying envelope in order to improve the RF-to-dc conversion efficiency. Thanks to a multisource configuration, i. e., an RFID reader at 0.868 GHz and an external source at 2.45 GHz, the EEH-C is able to rectify the harmonic product of the RFID chip, in addition to the 2.45 GHz signal, without compromising the RFID communication. Additionally, digitally modulated signals are used at 2.45 GHz to further enhance the harvesting efficiency of the EEH-C. From theory, simulations and measurement it is demonstrated that the exploitation of the three nonlinear effects of rectifying circuits, i.e., (i) impedance power dependency, (ii) harmonic signals production, and (iii) waveform dependency can greatly improve the conversion efficiency of the EEH-C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4556-4566
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015


  • Energy harvesting
  • harmonic balance
  • non-linearity
  • RFID
  • UHF passive tags
  • wireless power transmission
  • UHF


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