Controlled 3D biped stepping animations using the inverted pendulum and impulse constraints

Ben Kenwright*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


This paper presents a method for generating intelligent upright biped stepping motions for real-time dynamic environments. Our approach extends the inverted pendulum (IP) model by means of an impulse-based technique to achieve rigid-leg constraints during foot support transitions. The impulse-based method in cooperation with the IP method provides a computationally fast, straightforward, and robust solution for achieving stiff-knee joints that are desired during casual stepping motions, such as standing and walking. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the impulse-based inverted pendulum (IIP) model can be extended to embody rotational information to synthesize more dynamic actions, such as when the feet leave the ground or when slipping (i. e., foot friction).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2013 International Conference on Cyberworlds
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781479922468
Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2013
Event2013 International Conference on Cyberworlds - Yokohama, Japan
Duration: 21 Oct 201323 Oct 2013


Conference2013 International Conference on Cyberworlds
Abbreviated titleCW 2013


  • Avatar
  • Balancing
  • Biped
  • Character Animation
  • Impulse
  • Inverted Pendulum
  • Reactive
  • Real-Time
  • Responsive
  • Stepping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications


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