Continuous adsorption of Metanil Yellow and Remazol Black B dyes onto fixed-bed of 3D graphene oxide/chitosan biopolymer

Kar Chiew Lai, Wan Ting Tee, Nicholas Yung Li Loh, Billie Yan Zhang Hiew, Suyin Gan, Lai Yee Lee

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Treatment of dye polluted water using sustainable and efficient approaches is essential to mitigate the detrimental effects of dyes. The present work reports on the adsorption effectiveness of a graphene-based adsorbent configured into a practical engineering structure, namely three-dimensional graphene oxide integrated with chitosan biopolymer (3D-GCB). This unique graphene configuration enabled its application in continuous fixed-bed adsorption of Metanil Yellow (MY) and Remazol Black B (RBB) dyes from polluted water for the first time. The breakthrough attributes of the fixed-bed of 3D-GCB were established in terms of bed depth (3 – 5 cm), influent concentration (100 – 200 mg/L for MY and 100 – 300 mg/L for RBB) and feed flowrate (2 – 4 mL/min). The greatest bed adsorption capacities attained were 157.06 and 247.96 mg/g for MY and RBB, respectively. The column parameters for obtaining these results were 5 cm bed depth, 2 mL/min feed flowrate, and 150 and 200 mg/L influent concentrations respectively for MY and RBB. The fixed-bed performance of the 3D-GCB was well correlated to the Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models, and the corresponding kinetic properties were determined. Furthermore, the higher affinity of the 3D-GCB for RBB as compared to MY was elucidated based on the ionic strengths of the dye molecule. The utilisation of sustainable and renewable raw materials, such as graphite and chitosan, have resulted in a 3D-GCB production cost of approximately RM 10.72 per gram. This work revealed the suitability of 3D-GCB as the state-of-the-art graphene composite for continuous adsorption of anionic dyes, specifically MY and RBB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-284
Number of pages9
JournalSouth African Journal of Chemical Engineering
Early online date12 Feb 2024
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • 3D graphene
  • Fixed-bed adsorption
  • Metanil Yellow
  • Remazol Black B
  • chitosan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Catalysis
  • Filtration and Separation


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