Ultraviolet (UV), low penetration depth, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) are utilized as complementary, independent stress characterization tools for a range of strained Si samples doped by low energy (2 keV) Sb ion implantation. Following dopant implantation, good agreement is found between the magnitudes of strain measured by the two techniques. However, following dopant activation by annealing, strain relaxation is detected by HRXRD but not by micro-Raman. This discrepancy mainly arises from an anomalous redshift in the Si Raman peak position originating from the high levels of doping achieved in the samples. This has serious implications for the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy for strain characterization of highly doped strained Si complementary metal-oxide semiconductor devices and structures therein. We find a direct correlation between the Si Raman shift and peak carrier concentration measured by the differential Hall technique, which indicates that UV micro-Raman may become a useful tool for nondestructive dopant characterization for ultrashallow junctions in these Si-based materials. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics.
- STRESS MEASUREMENTS