Connected Sensors, Innovative Sensor Deployment and Intelligent Data Analysis for Online Water Quality Monitoring

L. Manjakkal, S. Mitra, Y. Petillo, J. Shutler, M. Scott, M. Willander, R. Dahiya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)
125 Downloads (Pure)


The sensor technology for water quality monitoring (WQM) has improved during recent years. The cost-effective sensorised tools that can autonomously measure the essential physical-chemical-biological (PCB) variables are now readily available and are being deployed on buoys, boats, and ships. Yet, there is a disconnect between the data quality, data gathering, and data analysis due to the lack of standardized approaches for data collection and processing, spatiotemporal variation of key parameters in water bodies and new contaminants. Such gaps can be bridged with a network of multiparametric sensor systems deployed in water bodies using autonomous vehicles, such as marine robots and aerial vehicles to broaden the data coverage in space and time. Furthermore, intelligent algorithms [e.g., artificial intelligence (AI)] could be employed for standardized data analysis and forecasting. This article presents a comprehensive review of the sensors, deployment, and analysis technologies for WQM. A network of networked water bodies could enhance the global data intercomparability and enable WQM at a global scale to address global challenges related to food (e.g., aqua/agriculture), drinking water, and health (e.g., water-borne diseases).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13805-13824
Number of pages20
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number18
Early online date19 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2021


  • Connected Sensors
  • Intelligent Data Analysis.
  • Intelligent sensors
  • Internet of Things
  • Monitoring
  • Pollution measurement
  • Robot sensing systems
  • Robotics
  • Sensor Deployment
  • Sensors
  • Water pollution
  • Water quality
  • Water quality monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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