This paper describes and evaluates a concurrent mapping and localization (CML) algorithm suitable for localizing an autonomous underwater vehicle. The proposed CML algorithm uses a sidescan sonar to sense the environment. The returns from the sonar are used to detect landmarks in the vehicle's vicinity. These landmarks are used, in conjunction with a vehicle model, by the CML algorithm to concurrently build an absolute map of the environment and to localize the vehicle in absolute coordinates. As the vehicle moves forward, the areas covered by a forward-look sonar overlap, whereas little or no overlap occurs when using sidescan sonar. It has been demonstrated that numerous reobservations by a forward-look sonar of the landmarks can be used to perform CML. Multipass missions, such as sets of parallel and regularly spaced linear tracks, allow a few reobservations of each landmark with sidescan sonar. An evaluation of the CML algorithm using sidescan sonar is made on this type of trajectory. The estimated trajectory provided by the CML algorithm shows significant jerks in the positions and heading brought about by the corrections that occur when a landmark is reobserved. Thus, this trajectory is not useful to mosaic the sea bed. This paper proposes the implementation of an optimal smoother on the CML solution. A forward stochastic map is used in conjunction with a backward Rauch-Tung-Striebel filter to provide the smoothed trajectory. This paper presents simulation and real results and shows that the smoothed CML solution helps to produce a more accurate navigation solution and a smooth navigation trajectory. This paper also shows that the qualitative value of the mosaics produced using CML is far superior to those that do not use it. © 2004 IEEE.