An ionic liquid (IL) is used to make antennas for the first time. Unlike water, the proposed material has a large liquid range (-69.8 °C-350 °C), a relative permittivity of 3, an extremely low dielectric loss, and very stable thermophysical material properties. It can be used for liquid dielectric resonator antennas (DRAs) or as a loading material for performance enhancement. Importantly, the proposed liquid loading scheme is relatively simple and of low cost, but it can markedly improve the antenna performance. As design examples, a liquid-loaded wideband linearly polarized (LP) monopole antenna with an omnidirectional radiation pattern is first presented. Then, the LP antenna is modified to a wideband circularly polarized (CP) antenna with boresight radiation. These antenna examples demonstrate a frequency coverage of 1.25-5 GHz, a wide CP bandwidth, a relatively high gain (>4 dBi), high radiation efficiency >85%, and an electrical size of 0.42 λ 0 x0.42λ 0 x0.17λ 0 . The experimental results show that the liquid loading works well under a wide range of temperatures. It effectively reduces the antenna electrical size by 40% and improves the impedance matching by 5 dB. Therefore, the proposed liquid loading scheme can be applied to a variety of antenna/RF designs.
Song, C., Bennett, E. L., Xiao, J., Hua, Q., Xing, L., & Huang, Y. (2019). Compact Ultra-Wideband Monopole Antennas Using Novel Liquid Loading Materials. IEEE Access, 7, 49039-49047. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2909944