Combined Economic Emission Dispatch in Presence of Renewable Energy Resources Using CISSA in a Smart Grid Environment

Muhammad Azeem, Tahir Nadeem Malik, Hafiz Abdul Muqeet, Muhammad Hussain, Ahmad Ali, Baber Khan, Atiq ur Rehman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
64 Downloads (Pure)


The geographically spatial and controlled distribution of fossil fuel resources, catastrophic global warming, and depletion of fossil fuel resources have forced us to integrate zero- or low-emissions energy resources, such as wind and solar, in the generation mix. These renewable energy resources are unexhausted, available around the globe, and free of cost. The advancement in wind and solar technologies has caused an appreciable decrease in installed the and global levelized costs of electricity via these sources. Therefore, the penetration of renewable energy resources in the generation mix can provide a promising solution to the above-mentioned problems. The aim of simultaneously reducing fuel consumption in terms of “Fuel Cost” and “Emission” in thermal power plants is called a combined economic emission dispatch problem. It is a combinatorial and multi-objective optimization problem. The solution of this problem is to allocate the load demand and losses on the committed units in such way that the overall costs of the generation and emission of thermal units are reduced, while the legal bounds (constraints) are met. It is a highly non-linear and complex optimization problem. The valve-point loading effect makes this problem non-convex. The addition of renewable energy resources (RERs) adds more complexities to this problem because they are intermittent. In this work, chaotic salp swarm algorithms (CISSA) are used to solve the combined economic emission dispatch problem. Chaos is used as an alternative to randomization for the tuning of the control variable to improve the trait of obtaining global extrema. Different test cases having different combinations of thermal, solar, and wind units are solved using the proposed algorithm. The results show the superiority of this study in comparison to the existent research results in terms of the cost of generation and emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number715
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


  • chaos theory
  • combined economic dispatch
  • hazardous emissions
  • renewable energy resources
  • salp swarm algorithm
  • smart grid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Signal Processing
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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