Coastal flooding from wave overtopping and sea level rise adaptation in the northeastern USA

Dongmei Xie, Qing-ping Zou, Anthony Mignone, Jean D. MacRae

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In the northeastern United States, flooding arising from wave overtopping poses a constant threat to coastal communities during storm events. The purpose of this study is to construct a novel integrated atmosphere-ocean-coast and overtopping-drainage modeling framework based on the coupled tide, surge and wave model, SWAN+ADCIRC, to assess risk and facilitate coastal adaptation and resilience to flooding in a changing climate in this region. The integrated modeling system was validated against the field observations of water level, wave height and period during the January 2015 North American blizzard. The water level collected by a sensor in the Avenues Basin behind the seawall in Scituate, Massachusetts were combined with the basin relationship between basin area and water level given by the USGS LIDAR data to obtain the field measurements of wave overtopping water volume in order to verify the model predictions. At the storm peak, the significant wave height was increased by 0.7 m at the coast by tide and surge. The wave setup along the coast varied from 0.1 m to 0.25 m depending on the coastline geometry. The interaction between tide-surge and waves increased the wave overtopping rate by five folds mainly due to the increased wave height at the toe of the seawall. The wave overtopping discharge would approximately double in an intermediate sea level rise scenario of 0.36 m by 2050 for a storm like the January 2015 North American blizzard. The wave overtopping discharge would increase by 1.5 times if the seawall crest elevation was raised by the same amount as sea level rise as an adaptation strategy. An increase of 0.9 m in the seawall crest elevation instead of 0.6 m currently planned by the town is required to bring the wave overtopping discharge to the current level under a 0.36 m sea level rise scenario. This result is primarily due to larger waves arriving at the seawall without breaking in the presence of larger water depth.
LanguageEnglish
Pages39-58
Number of pages20
JournalCoastal Engineering
Volume150
Early online date7 Feb 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019

Fingerprint

overtopping
flooding
tide
water level
coast
wave height
wave setup
basin
sea level rise
significant wave height
modeling
water depth
drainage
sensor
fold
geometry
atmosphere

Keywords

  • ADCIRC
  • Climate change
  • Coastal adaptation
  • Coastal flooding
  • Coastal resilience
  • SWAN
  • Sea level rise
  • Seawall
  • Urban flooding
  • Wave overtopping
  • Wave-current interaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Ocean Engineering

Cite this

Xie, Dongmei ; Zou, Qing-ping ; Mignone, Anthony ; MacRae, Jean D. / Coastal flooding from wave overtopping and sea level rise adaptation in the northeastern USA. In: Coastal Engineering. 2019 ; Vol. 150. pp. 39-58.
@article{526ebe46b494446089c0dc639c430752,
title = "Coastal flooding from wave overtopping and sea level rise adaptation in the northeastern USA",
abstract = "In the northeastern United States, flooding arising from wave overtopping poses a constant threat to coastal communities during storm events. The purpose of this study is to construct a novel integrated atmosphere-ocean-coast and overtopping-drainage modeling framework based on the coupled tide, surge and wave model, SWAN+ADCIRC, to assess risk and facilitate coastal adaptation and resilience to flooding in a changing climate in this region. The integrated modeling system was validated against the field observations of water level, wave height and period during the January 2015 North American blizzard. The water level collected by a sensor in the Avenues Basin behind the seawall in Scituate, Massachusetts were combined with the basin relationship between basin area and water level given by the USGS LIDAR data to obtain the field measurements of wave overtopping water volume in order to verify the model predictions. At the storm peak, the significant wave height was increased by 0.7 m at the coast by tide and surge. The wave setup along the coast varied from 0.1 m to 0.25 m depending on the coastline geometry. The interaction between tide-surge and waves increased the wave overtopping rate by five folds mainly due to the increased wave height at the toe of the seawall. The wave overtopping discharge would approximately double in an intermediate sea level rise scenario of 0.36 m by 2050 for a storm like the January 2015 North American blizzard. The wave overtopping discharge would increase by 1.5 times if the seawall crest elevation was raised by the same amount as sea level rise as an adaptation strategy. An increase of 0.9 m in the seawall crest elevation instead of 0.6 m currently planned by the town is required to bring the wave overtopping discharge to the current level under a 0.36 m sea level rise scenario. This result is primarily due to larger waves arriving at the seawall without breaking in the presence of larger water depth.",
keywords = "ADCIRC, Climate change, Coastal adaptation, Coastal flooding, Coastal resilience, SWAN, Sea level rise, Seawall, Urban flooding, Wave overtopping, Wave-current interaction",
author = "Dongmei Xie and Qing-ping Zou and Anthony Mignone and MacRae, {Jean D.}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.02.001",
language = "English",
volume = "150",
pages = "39--58",
journal = "Coastal Engineering",
issn = "0378-3839",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Coastal flooding from wave overtopping and sea level rise adaptation in the northeastern USA. / Xie, Dongmei; Zou, Qing-ping; Mignone, Anthony; MacRae, Jean D.

In: Coastal Engineering, Vol. 150, 08.2019, p. 39-58.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Coastal flooding from wave overtopping and sea level rise adaptation in the northeastern USA

AU - Xie, Dongmei

AU - Zou, Qing-ping

AU - Mignone, Anthony

AU - MacRae, Jean D.

PY - 2019/8

Y1 - 2019/8

N2 - In the northeastern United States, flooding arising from wave overtopping poses a constant threat to coastal communities during storm events. The purpose of this study is to construct a novel integrated atmosphere-ocean-coast and overtopping-drainage modeling framework based on the coupled tide, surge and wave model, SWAN+ADCIRC, to assess risk and facilitate coastal adaptation and resilience to flooding in a changing climate in this region. The integrated modeling system was validated against the field observations of water level, wave height and period during the January 2015 North American blizzard. The water level collected by a sensor in the Avenues Basin behind the seawall in Scituate, Massachusetts were combined with the basin relationship between basin area and water level given by the USGS LIDAR data to obtain the field measurements of wave overtopping water volume in order to verify the model predictions. At the storm peak, the significant wave height was increased by 0.7 m at the coast by tide and surge. The wave setup along the coast varied from 0.1 m to 0.25 m depending on the coastline geometry. The interaction between tide-surge and waves increased the wave overtopping rate by five folds mainly due to the increased wave height at the toe of the seawall. The wave overtopping discharge would approximately double in an intermediate sea level rise scenario of 0.36 m by 2050 for a storm like the January 2015 North American blizzard. The wave overtopping discharge would increase by 1.5 times if the seawall crest elevation was raised by the same amount as sea level rise as an adaptation strategy. An increase of 0.9 m in the seawall crest elevation instead of 0.6 m currently planned by the town is required to bring the wave overtopping discharge to the current level under a 0.36 m sea level rise scenario. This result is primarily due to larger waves arriving at the seawall without breaking in the presence of larger water depth.

AB - In the northeastern United States, flooding arising from wave overtopping poses a constant threat to coastal communities during storm events. The purpose of this study is to construct a novel integrated atmosphere-ocean-coast and overtopping-drainage modeling framework based on the coupled tide, surge and wave model, SWAN+ADCIRC, to assess risk and facilitate coastal adaptation and resilience to flooding in a changing climate in this region. The integrated modeling system was validated against the field observations of water level, wave height and period during the January 2015 North American blizzard. The water level collected by a sensor in the Avenues Basin behind the seawall in Scituate, Massachusetts were combined with the basin relationship between basin area and water level given by the USGS LIDAR data to obtain the field measurements of wave overtopping water volume in order to verify the model predictions. At the storm peak, the significant wave height was increased by 0.7 m at the coast by tide and surge. The wave setup along the coast varied from 0.1 m to 0.25 m depending on the coastline geometry. The interaction between tide-surge and waves increased the wave overtopping rate by five folds mainly due to the increased wave height at the toe of the seawall. The wave overtopping discharge would approximately double in an intermediate sea level rise scenario of 0.36 m by 2050 for a storm like the January 2015 North American blizzard. The wave overtopping discharge would increase by 1.5 times if the seawall crest elevation was raised by the same amount as sea level rise as an adaptation strategy. An increase of 0.9 m in the seawall crest elevation instead of 0.6 m currently planned by the town is required to bring the wave overtopping discharge to the current level under a 0.36 m sea level rise scenario. This result is primarily due to larger waves arriving at the seawall without breaking in the presence of larger water depth.

KW - ADCIRC

KW - Climate change

KW - Coastal adaptation

KW - Coastal flooding

KW - Coastal resilience

KW - SWAN

KW - Sea level rise

KW - Seawall

KW - Urban flooding

KW - Wave overtopping

KW - Wave-current interaction

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85064607129&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.02.001

DO - 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.02.001

M3 - Article

VL - 150

SP - 39

EP - 58

JO - Coastal Engineering

T2 - Coastal Engineering

JF - Coastal Engineering

SN - 0378-3839

ER -