Coagulation, non-associative algebras and binary trees

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We consider the classical Smoluchowski coagulation equation with a general frequency kernel. We show that there exists a natural deterministic solution expansion in the non-associative algebra generated by the convolution product of the coalescence term. The non-associative solution expansion is equivalently represented by binary trees. We demonstrate that the existence of such solutions corresponds to establishing the compatibility of two binary-tree generating procedures, by: (i) grafting together the roots of all pairs of order-compatible trees at preceding orders, or (ii) attaching binary branches to all free branches of trees at the previous order. We then show that the solution represents a linearised flow, and also establish a new numerical simulation method based on truncation of the solution tree expansion and approximating the integral terms at each order by fast Fourier transform. In particular, for general separable frequency kernels, the complexity of the method is linear-loglinear in the number of spatial modes/nodes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number134054
JournalPhysica D: Nonlinear Phenomena
Early online date15 Jan 2024
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024


  • Binary trees
  • Non-associative algebras
  • Smoluchowski coagulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Mathematical Physics


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