Closed-Form Power Normalization Methods for a Satellite MIMO System

Andrea Segneri, Alejandro Baldominos, George Goussetis*, Alberto Mengali, Nelson J. G. Fonseca

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
68 Downloads (Pure)


The paper proposes a new set of normalization techniques for precoding/beamforming matrices applicable to broadband multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) satellite systems. The proposed techniques adapt known normalization methods to account for the signal attenuation experienced by users due to the degradation of antenna gain and free space losses towards the edge of the coverage. We use, as an example, an array-fed reflector (AFR) antenna onboard a satellite in geosynchronous orbit (GEO), which provides a favorable trade-off between high-directivity, reconfigurability, and the requirement for digital processing, but suffers from high scan losses away from broadside due to optical aberrations when considered for global coverage applications. Three different precoding/beamforming techniques are employed, namely zero forcing (ZF), minimum mean squared error (MMSE), and matched filtering (MF). Low-complexity power normalization techniques digitally applied after the beamformer are introduced that, in the absence of any atmospheric effects, lead to iso-flux-like characteristics whilst satisfying the power constraint per feed. In comparison with other methods reported in the literature, mainly based on iterative algorithms, the proposed techniques consist in closed-form expressions to provide uniform signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-noise plus interference ratio (SNIR) across the users without significant impact on the payload sum rate. Numerical results are presented to comparatively demonstrate the achieved performance in terms of total capacity and distribution of SNR and SNIR at various noise and interference scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2586
Issue number7
Early online date28 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • array-fed reflectors
  • linear precoding
  • multiple-input multiple-output
  • power normalization techniques
  • satellite communications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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