Characterization of the Dimensional Precision, Physical Bonding, and Tensile Performance of 3D-Printed PLA Parts with Different Printing Temperature

Rayson Pang, Mun Kou Lai, Khairul Izwan Ismail, Tze Chuen Yap

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In this study, tensile test specimens were fabricated using a material extrusion 3D-printer at various printing temperatures to evaluate the development of physical bonds within the same layer as well as in between previous layers. The tensile test specimens were fabricated using PLA material, with printing temperatures ranging from 180 °C to 260 °C. Experimental investigations were conducted to investigate the dimensional accuracy and physical appearance of the parts across printing temperatures. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at a strain rate of 1 mm/min and repeated five times for each variable in accordance with the ASTM D638-14 standard. Results showed that increasing the printing temperatures yielded parts with better tensile properties. An approximate difference of 40% in tensile strength was observed between specimens fabricated under the two most extreme conditions (180 °C and 260 °C). The changes in tensile properties were attributed to bonding mechanisms related to interlayer bonding strength and a reduction in voids within the internal geometry. Analysis of the fracture surface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed fewer and smaller voids within the internal geometry for parts printed at higher temperature. The percentage area of voids reduced significantly when the printing temperature was increased from 180 °C to 220 °C. The tensile properties continuously improved with the printing temperature, with parts printed at 220 °C exhibiting the highest dimensional accuracy. The findings offer insight into the impact of the printing temperature on both the external physical bonds between printed roads, affecting the physical appearance and dimensional accuracy, and the internal bonds, affecting the tensile properties of the fabricated parts.
Original languageEnglish
Article number56
JournalJournal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2024


  • additive manufacturing
  • dimensional accuracy
  • fused filament fabrication
  • inter/intralayer bonding
  • tensile properties
  • void formation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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