Cemented sands: from field deformation to inter-particle bonding

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

Abstract

The occurrence and evolution of localized deformation in sands and sandstones can be affected, among other factors, by the size, shape, and mineralogy of the grains and also by the distribution, type and the overall chemistry of the cementation. The latter, in fact, characterizes the strength of a sandstone and definitely alters porosity and permeability. Cementation is relatively poorly researched and it is the topic of this study. In the present work we aim at understanding how the type, degree and bonding morphology of the cement affect the mechanical properties of artificially cemented sands. This is a multi-scale study, moving between centimeter sized samples and grain scale using laboratory cemented sands and pieces of naturally cemented materials.
The sand grains in our work have been collected from a quarry, in the southern France, consisting of a weakly cemented sand. Numerous deformation bands have been observed in the outcrops of this quarry. The grain size of the undeformed material is between 300 and 400 µm, whereas the deformation bands are generally characterized by angular sand grains of a smaller size. Scanning electron imaging of poorly cemented sand chunks, coming mainly from the undeformed region of the quarry, reveals a cementing action by clays mixed with water, formed during early diagenesis. The clay platelets partially rim the sand grain surfaces. In particular, the cement mixture forms menisci between adjacent grains that may or may not be touching and acts as bonds connecting single sand particles into an identifiable, although weak, structure.
Motivated by the above mentioned natural example, we focus on studying at the laboratory scale similar cement bonding morphologies obtained in artificial, laboratory-created cemented sands. To do so, we mix sand grains from the quarry with three different cements using a water-based solution of a) sugar; b) calcite; c) clay powders. The artificially cemented samples are then x-ray scanned in order to obtain a 3D understanding of the grain-cement structure. Moreover, the pore networks are extracted from the x-ray images allowing us to calculate flow properties within the artificially samples. Scanning electron imaging is also performed in some of these samples to capture a high resolution cement topology in 2D.
Once we understand the cement distribution and morphology, next steps will consist of performing triaxial compression experiments on the artificially cemented sand samples while scanning them in situ with x-rays. In this way we aim at gaining better insights of the different cement type behaviors when the samples are subjected to the same loading conditions. Moreover, we question whether the cement type and topology influence the actual deformation processes. Finally, we compare the resolved deformation micro-mechanisms that develop in the artificially cemented sand with those of the deformation features in the French outcrops.

Conference

Conference11th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials
Abbreviated titleIWBDG2017
CountryCyprus
CityLimassol
Period21/05/1725/05/17
Internet address

Fingerprint

sand
cement
quarry
cementation
clay
particle
topology
outcrop
sandstone
electron
diagenesis
mechanical property
sugar
mineralogy
calcite
grain size
porosity
compression
permeability
water

Cite this

Soriano, I., Charalampidou, E-M. C., Lewis, M. H., Viggiani, G., Buckman, J., Ando, E., & Couples, G. D. (2017). Cemented sands: from field deformation to inter-particle bonding. Abstract from 11th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials , Limassol, Cyprus.
Soriano, Ilaria ; Charalampidou, Elli-Maria Christodoulos ; Lewis, Margaret Helen ; Viggiani, Gioacchino ; Buckman, Jim ; Ando, Edward ; Couples, Gary Douglas. / Cemented sands: from field deformation to inter-particle bonding. Abstract from 11th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials , Limassol, Cyprus.
@conference{67341a0915164c638e4b21be49ccc39f,
title = "Cemented sands: from field deformation to inter-particle bonding",
abstract = "The occurrence and evolution of localized deformation in sands and sandstones can be affected, among other factors, by the size, shape, and mineralogy of the grains and also by the distribution, type and the overall chemistry of the cementation. The latter, in fact, characterizes the strength of a sandstone and definitely alters porosity and permeability. Cementation is relatively poorly researched and it is the topic of this study. In the present work we aim at understanding how the type, degree and bonding morphology of the cement affect the mechanical properties of artificially cemented sands. This is a multi-scale study, moving between centimeter sized samples and grain scale using laboratory cemented sands and pieces of naturally cemented materials.The sand grains in our work have been collected from a quarry, in the southern France, consisting of a weakly cemented sand. Numerous deformation bands have been observed in the outcrops of this quarry. The grain size of the undeformed material is between 300 and 400 µm, whereas the deformation bands are generally characterized by angular sand grains of a smaller size. Scanning electron imaging of poorly cemented sand chunks, coming mainly from the undeformed region of the quarry, reveals a cementing action by clays mixed with water, formed during early diagenesis. The clay platelets partially rim the sand grain surfaces. In particular, the cement mixture forms menisci between adjacent grains that may or may not be touching and acts as bonds connecting single sand particles into an identifiable, although weak, structure.Motivated by the above mentioned natural example, we focus on studying at the laboratory scale similar cement bonding morphologies obtained in artificial, laboratory-created cemented sands. To do so, we mix sand grains from the quarry with three different cements using a water-based solution of a) sugar; b) calcite; c) clay powders. The artificially cemented samples are then x-ray scanned in order to obtain a 3D understanding of the grain-cement structure. Moreover, the pore networks are extracted from the x-ray images allowing us to calculate flow properties within the artificially samples. Scanning electron imaging is also performed in some of these samples to capture a high resolution cement topology in 2D.Once we understand the cement distribution and morphology, next steps will consist of performing triaxial compression experiments on the artificially cemented sand samples while scanning them in situ with x-rays. In this way we aim at gaining better insights of the different cement type behaviors when the samples are subjected to the same loading conditions. Moreover, we question whether the cement type and topology influence the actual deformation processes. Finally, we compare the resolved deformation micro-mechanisms that develop in the artificially cemented sand with those of the deformation features in the French outcrops.",
author = "Ilaria Soriano and Charalampidou, {Elli-Maria Christodoulos} and Lewis, {Margaret Helen} and Gioacchino Viggiani and Jim Buckman and Edward Ando and Couples, {Gary Douglas}",
year = "2017",
language = "English",
note = "11th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials , IWBDG2017 ; Conference date: 21-05-2017 Through 25-05-2017",
url = "http://www.cyprusconferences.org/iwbdg2017/",

}

Soriano, I, Charalampidou, E-MC, Lewis, MH, Viggiani, G, Buckman, J, Ando, E & Couples, GD 2017, 'Cemented sands: from field deformation to inter-particle bonding' 11th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials , Limassol, Cyprus, 21/05/17 - 25/05/17, .

Cemented sands: from field deformation to inter-particle bonding. / Soriano, Ilaria; Charalampidou, Elli-Maria Christodoulos; Lewis, Margaret Helen; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Buckman, Jim; Ando, Edward ; Couples, Gary Douglas.

2017. Abstract from 11th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials , Limassol, Cyprus.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

TY - CONF

T1 - Cemented sands: from field deformation to inter-particle bonding

AU - Soriano, Ilaria

AU - Charalampidou, Elli-Maria Christodoulos

AU - Lewis, Margaret Helen

AU - Viggiani, Gioacchino

AU - Buckman, Jim

AU - Ando, Edward

AU - Couples, Gary Douglas

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - The occurrence and evolution of localized deformation in sands and sandstones can be affected, among other factors, by the size, shape, and mineralogy of the grains and also by the distribution, type and the overall chemistry of the cementation. The latter, in fact, characterizes the strength of a sandstone and definitely alters porosity and permeability. Cementation is relatively poorly researched and it is the topic of this study. In the present work we aim at understanding how the type, degree and bonding morphology of the cement affect the mechanical properties of artificially cemented sands. This is a multi-scale study, moving between centimeter sized samples and grain scale using laboratory cemented sands and pieces of naturally cemented materials.The sand grains in our work have been collected from a quarry, in the southern France, consisting of a weakly cemented sand. Numerous deformation bands have been observed in the outcrops of this quarry. The grain size of the undeformed material is between 300 and 400 µm, whereas the deformation bands are generally characterized by angular sand grains of a smaller size. Scanning electron imaging of poorly cemented sand chunks, coming mainly from the undeformed region of the quarry, reveals a cementing action by clays mixed with water, formed during early diagenesis. The clay platelets partially rim the sand grain surfaces. In particular, the cement mixture forms menisci between adjacent grains that may or may not be touching and acts as bonds connecting single sand particles into an identifiable, although weak, structure.Motivated by the above mentioned natural example, we focus on studying at the laboratory scale similar cement bonding morphologies obtained in artificial, laboratory-created cemented sands. To do so, we mix sand grains from the quarry with three different cements using a water-based solution of a) sugar; b) calcite; c) clay powders. The artificially cemented samples are then x-ray scanned in order to obtain a 3D understanding of the grain-cement structure. Moreover, the pore networks are extracted from the x-ray images allowing us to calculate flow properties within the artificially samples. Scanning electron imaging is also performed in some of these samples to capture a high resolution cement topology in 2D.Once we understand the cement distribution and morphology, next steps will consist of performing triaxial compression experiments on the artificially cemented sand samples while scanning them in situ with x-rays. In this way we aim at gaining better insights of the different cement type behaviors when the samples are subjected to the same loading conditions. Moreover, we question whether the cement type and topology influence the actual deformation processes. Finally, we compare the resolved deformation micro-mechanisms that develop in the artificially cemented sand with those of the deformation features in the French outcrops.

AB - The occurrence and evolution of localized deformation in sands and sandstones can be affected, among other factors, by the size, shape, and mineralogy of the grains and also by the distribution, type and the overall chemistry of the cementation. The latter, in fact, characterizes the strength of a sandstone and definitely alters porosity and permeability. Cementation is relatively poorly researched and it is the topic of this study. In the present work we aim at understanding how the type, degree and bonding morphology of the cement affect the mechanical properties of artificially cemented sands. This is a multi-scale study, moving between centimeter sized samples and grain scale using laboratory cemented sands and pieces of naturally cemented materials.The sand grains in our work have been collected from a quarry, in the southern France, consisting of a weakly cemented sand. Numerous deformation bands have been observed in the outcrops of this quarry. The grain size of the undeformed material is between 300 and 400 µm, whereas the deformation bands are generally characterized by angular sand grains of a smaller size. Scanning electron imaging of poorly cemented sand chunks, coming mainly from the undeformed region of the quarry, reveals a cementing action by clays mixed with water, formed during early diagenesis. The clay platelets partially rim the sand grain surfaces. In particular, the cement mixture forms menisci between adjacent grains that may or may not be touching and acts as bonds connecting single sand particles into an identifiable, although weak, structure.Motivated by the above mentioned natural example, we focus on studying at the laboratory scale similar cement bonding morphologies obtained in artificial, laboratory-created cemented sands. To do so, we mix sand grains from the quarry with three different cements using a water-based solution of a) sugar; b) calcite; c) clay powders. The artificially cemented samples are then x-ray scanned in order to obtain a 3D understanding of the grain-cement structure. Moreover, the pore networks are extracted from the x-ray images allowing us to calculate flow properties within the artificially samples. Scanning electron imaging is also performed in some of these samples to capture a high resolution cement topology in 2D.Once we understand the cement distribution and morphology, next steps will consist of performing triaxial compression experiments on the artificially cemented sand samples while scanning them in situ with x-rays. In this way we aim at gaining better insights of the different cement type behaviors when the samples are subjected to the same loading conditions. Moreover, we question whether the cement type and topology influence the actual deformation processes. Finally, we compare the resolved deformation micro-mechanisms that develop in the artificially cemented sand with those of the deformation features in the French outcrops.

M3 - Abstract

ER -

Soriano I, Charalampidou E-MC, Lewis MH, Viggiani G, Buckman J, Ando E et al. Cemented sands: from field deformation to inter-particle bonding. 2017. Abstract from 11th International Workshop on Bifurcation and Degradation in Geomaterials , Limassol, Cyprus.