A new oxygen-annealing treatment for Pd supported on graphene was employed to enhance the electro-catalytic performance in formic acid microfluidic fuel cells. Experiments show that both the electro-oxidation reactivity and CO tolerance of the annealed catalyst are significantly improved. When testing the fuel cell, the maximum power density with annealed catalyst is 41% higher than the unannealed Pd@graphene catalyst, and 85% higher than Pd@Vulcan XC-72. This enhancement is attributed to the Pdsingle bondO bond formation during the oxygen annealing step, which induces greater CO electro-oxidation reactivity.
Li, D., Xu, H., Zhang, L., Leung, D. Y. C., Vilela, F., Wang, H., & Xuan, J. (2016). Boosting the performance of formic acid microfluidic fuel cell: Oxygen annealing enhanced Pd@graphene electrocatalyst. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 41(24), 10249–10254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.05.019