Bond and anchorage of embedded steel reinforcement in fib Model Code 2010

John Cairns*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes the changes to design provisions for embedded steel reinforcement in the fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010. The changes introduce new coefficients for steel grade and clear spacing between bars, and extend the range of concrete strengths covered. The way in which the contribution of hooks or anchorages is calculated has been revised and the contribution of end bearing to laps and anchorages of compression bars is recognized. The revised rules represent a move away from a distinction between laps and anchorages per se towards a distinction based on the presence or absence of transverse pressure perpendicular to the bar axis within the bond length. The benefits of staggering laps with only a proportion of bars lapped at a section are also reviewed. Finally, the potential impact of lap and anchorage performance on structural robustness is discussed, and it is concluded that this can only be achieved if bar yield precedes splitting mode bond failures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-55
Number of pages11
JournalStructural Concrete
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • anchorage
  • bond
  • fib Model Code
  • hooks and bends
  • lapped joints


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