Blended waste oil as alternative binder for the production of environmental friendly roofing tiles

Suubitaa Spencer Sam, Noor Zainab Habib, Ng Choon Aun, Chee Swee Yong, Mohammed J. K. Bashir, Teoh Wei Ping

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
91 Downloads (Pure)


Excessive emission of carbon dioxide and huge consumption of energy during the production of traditional building materials is a global issue needed to be concern by the society. The carbon dioxide released from the manufacturing process are one of the main contributors which lead to the deterioration of global warming. This study focused on the feasibility of using waste oils as blended binder to produced environmental friendly roofing tiles. The blended binder composed of waste engine oil and waste vegetable oil, woks together with sand aggregate and fly ash to produce an innovative building materials, namely WEV-Roofing tiles. A series of parameters including the composition of materials and manufacturing conditions were being optimized in order to determine the best formulation in the production of WEV-Roofing tiles. Basic requirements for standard roofing tiles, including flexural strength, water absorption and permeability tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of WEV-Roofing tiles, according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM C 67 – 07a, C 1167 – 03, and C 1492 – 03). Furthermore, the embodied carbon and embodied energy of the optimized tiles were found at 0.30 kgCO2/equivalent and 0.55 MJ/kg respectively, which is lower compared to the traditional building materials. The recycled and reused of waste materials to produce an environmental friendly roofing tiles is the main challenges of this research study.
Original languageEnglish
Article number120937
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Early online date6 Mar 2020
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2020


  • Embodied carbon
  • Embodied energy
  • Roofing tiles
  • Waste engine oil
  • Waste vegetable oil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Environmental Science
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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