Beamforming with 1 × N Conformal Arrays

Irfan Ullah, Benjamin D. Braaten, Adnan Iftikhar, Symeon Nikolaou, Dimitris E. Anagnostou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
27 Downloads (Pure)


The rapid growth of wireless spectrum access through cellular and IoT devices, for example, requires antennas with more capabilities such as being conformal and self-adapting beamforming. In this paper, the adaptive beamforming patterns of microstrip patch antenna arrays on changing flexible (or conformal) curved surfaces are developed by deriving array coefficients based on the projection method that includes the mutual coupling between elements. A linear four-element microstrip patch antenna array is then embedded on two deformed conformal surfaces to investigate the projection method for desired beamforming patterns. The generated beamforming radiation patterns using the computed weighting coefficients are validated with theoretical equations evaluated in MATLAB, full-wave simulations in HFSS and measurement results. The measured results of the fabricated system agree with the simulated results. Furthermore, new guidelines are provided on the effects of mutual coupling and changing conformal surfaces for various beam-forming patterns. Such demonstrations pave the way to an efficient and robust conformal phased-array antenna with multiple beam forming and adaptive nulling capabilities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6616
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2022


  • beam-forming antenna array
  • conformal surface
  • self-adapting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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