Beamforming Orthogonality in Coupled Directional Modulation Arrays

Jiayu Hou*, Haijun Fan, Yuan Ding, Yue Xiao, Symon Podilchak

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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This paper studies the orthogonality in a directional modulation (DM) transmitter equipped with an antenna array whose mutual coupling is considered. The antenna coupling will generate backward waves at the power amplifier (PA) outputs. This dynamic interaction will drive the PA load away from the system characteristic impedance thus introducing the loadpulling effect to the system which would result in the distortion to the DM system orthogonality. When the antenna coupling is considered, for a certain target user, the leakage radiation from the information beams designed for other users and from the generated artificial noise would become the interference to this user, and in one example given in this paper, the signal to interference ratios (SIR) of around 20 dB are observed. This compromise of the DM orthogonality would put a performance upper limit to a DM system considering a coupled antenna array.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication18th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation 2024
ISBN (Electronic)9788831299091
Publication statusPublished - 26 Apr 2024
Event18th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation 2024 - Glasgow, United Kingdom
Duration: 17 Mar 202422 Mar 2024


Conference18th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation 2024
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


  • antenna coupling
  • directional modulation (DM)
  • orthogonality
  • power amplifier (PA) loadpulling
  • signal to interference ratio (SIR)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Radiation
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Modelling and Simulation


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