Automated detection of uninformative frames in pulmonary optical endomicroscopy (OEM)

Antonios Perperidis, Ahsan Akram, Yoann Altmann, Paul McCool, Jody Westerfeld, David Wilson, Kevin Dhaliwal, Stephen McLaughlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
87 Downloads (Pure)


Significance: Optical endomicroscopy (OEM) is a novel real-time imaging technology that provides endoscopic images at a microscopic level. The nature of OEM data, as acquired in clinical use, gives rise to the presence of uninformative frames (i.e. pure-noise and motion-artefacts). Uninformative frames can comprise a considerable proportion (up to >25%) of a dataset, increasing the resources required for analysing the data (both manually and automatically), as well as diluting the results of any automated quantification analysis. Objective: There is therefore a need to automatically detect and remove as many of these uninformative frames as possible while keeping frames with structural information intact. Methods: This paper employs Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix texture measures and detection theory to identify and remove such frames. The detection of pure-noise frames and motion artefacts is treated as two independent problems. Results: Pulmonary OEM frame sequences of the distal lung are employed for the development and assessment of the approach. The proposed approach identifies and removes uninformative frames with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 92.6%. Conclusion: The detection algorithm is accurate and robust in pulmonary OEM frame sequences. Conditional to appropriate model refinement, the algorithms can become applicable in other organs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-98
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number1
Early online date10 Mar 2016
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2017


  • Optical Endomicroscopy (OEM)
  • Fibered Confocal Fluorescent Microscopy (FCFM)
  • distal lung imaging
  • image analysis
  • texture analysis
  • frames detection


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