Assessing Multiple Inequalities and Air Pollution Abatement Policies

Jorge A. Bonilla, Claudia Aravena, Ricardo Morales-Betancourt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


Addressing inequality is recognized a worldwide development objective. The literature has primarily focused on examining economic or social inequality, but rarely on environmental inequality. Centering the discussion on economic or social factors does not provide a holistic view of inequality because it is multidimensional and several facets may overlap imposing a disproportionate burden on vulnerable communities. This study investigates the magnitude of air quality inequality in conjunction with economic and social inequalities in Bogotá (Colombia). It explores where inequalities overlap and assesses alleviation measures by tackling air pollution. We develop a composite index to estimate performance in socioeconomic and air quality characteristics across the city and evaluate inequality with a variety of measures. Using an atmospheric chemical transport model, we simulate the impact of three air pollution abatement policies: paving roads, industry fuel substitution, and diesel-vehicle renewal on fine particle concentrations, and compute their effect on inequality. Results show that allocation of air quality across Bogotá is highly unequal, exceeding economic or social inequality. Evidence also indicates that economic, social and air quality disparities intersect, displaying the southwest as the most vulnerable zone. Paving roads is found to be the most progressive and cost-effective policy, reducing overall inequality between 11 and 46 percent with net benefits exceeding US$1.4 billion.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)695-727
Number of pages33
JournalEnvironmental and Resource Economics
Issue number3
Early online date13 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


  • Air pollution
  • Atmospheric chemical transport model
  • Composite index
  • Cost–benefit analysis
  • Human health
  • Inequality measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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