Palm oil industry generates large amount of palm-based biomass (i.e., oil palm frond, oil palm trunk, empty fruit bunches, palm kernel shell, palm mesocarp fibre, palm kernel cake, and palm oil mill effluent) through harvesting, milling and replanting processes. With the increasing volume of global palm oil production, palm-based biomass utilisation is gaining significant attention as there are plenty opportunities and potentials to convert them into value-added products (e.g. dried long fibre, palm pallet, palm briquettes, and biofuels). In order to systematically synthesise, design and analyse the palm-based biomass processing facilities, Process System Engineering (PSE) is identified as the most promising engineering discipline to resolve the abovementioned issues. This paper focuses the review of the applications of PSE in palm-based biomass processing industry. This paper first presents potential utilisation of palm-based biomass. Applications of PSE (e.g. process modelling, process simulation, process synthesis, supply chain optimisation, and life cycle assessment) in palm-based biomass processing industry are then reviewed. Finally, future prospects and challenges of PSE in this industry are given.
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