Application of hybrid ultrasonic cavitation/adsorption and coagulation for treatment of palm oil mill effluent

Wong Ging King, Lee Man Djun, Augustine Chioma Affam, Wong Chee Chung, Ir. Wong Chee Swee, Johnson Olufemi Adebayo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Ultrasound cavitation (US), coagulation treatment (natural coagulant chitosan and synthetic coagulant ferric chloride (FeCl3)) and activated carbon as adsorbent were applied for treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent (POME). The findings showed that for US alone, increasing pH >11 COD removal increased due to more hydroxyl radical (OH·) present in alkali solution phase. The COD, colour and TSS removal at pH 11 were 26.3%, 52.7% and 58.2%, respectively after 60 min. Application of coagulants (Chitosan and FeCl3) required acidic medium for coagulation (i.e. between pH 4.5 and 5) to be effective. A dosage of 100 mg/L chitosan at pH 4.5 removed 15.4% COD, 85.8% colour and 97% TSS from POME. A dosage of 450 mg/L FeCl3 at pH 5 removed 38.54% COD, 88.6% colour and 91.5% TSS. It was observed that FeCl3 removed COD better than chitosan. Adsorption studies indicated that 800 mg/L of activated carbon removed 64.3% COD, 99.16% colour and 99.5% TSS. The dosage needed for adsorption was much higher compared to chitosan and FeCl3 coagulants required. However, activated carbon could be recycled and reused. The hybrid treatment of ultrasound cavitation and coagulation (US-FeCl3) removed 56.3% COD, 92.4% colour and 96% TSS. The US-Chitosan removed 35.1% COD, 86.8% colour and TSS 89.2%. The eventual hybrid treatment of ultrasound cavitation, FeCl3 coagulation and activated carbon adsorption in series removed BOD5 89.7%, COD 88.1%, colour 99.9% and TSS 99.5% cumulatively. The final effluent concentration of the treated POME was in the accepted range set by Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia. The study showed that a combination of ultrasound cavitation, adsorption and coagulation (Chitosan and FeCl3) treatments were effective for removal of BOD5, COD, colour and TSS in POME wastewater. In addition, the efficiency of the treatment will further improve when these treatment technologies are combined.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication6th International Conference on Environment (ICENV 2018)
Subtitle of host publicationEmpowering Environment and Sustainable Engineering Nexus Through Green Technology
EditorsDerek Chan Juinn Chieh
PublisherAIP Publishing
ISBN (Electronic)9780735418646
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jul 2019
Event6th International Conference on Environment 2018 - Penang, Malaysia
Duration: 11 Dec 201813 Dec 2018

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
Volume2124
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616

Conference

Conference6th International Conference on Environment 2018
Abbreviated titleICENV 2018
CountryMalaysia
CityPenang
Period11/12/1813/12/18

Fingerprint

oil mill effluents
crack opening displacement
cavitation
effluents
coagulation
cavitation flow
chitosan
ultrasonics
adsorption
mill
oils
effluent
coagulants
color
oil
activated carbon
dosage
adsorbents
Malaysia
hydroxyl radicals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology
  • Plant Science
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation

Cite this

King, W. G., Djun, L. M., Affam, A. C., Chung, W. C., Swee, I. W. C., & Adebayo, J. O. (2019). Application of hybrid ultrasonic cavitation/adsorption and coagulation for treatment of palm oil mill effluent. In D. C. J. Chieh (Ed.), 6th International Conference on Environment (ICENV 2018): Empowering Environment and Sustainable Engineering Nexus Through Green Technology [020008] (AIP Conference Proceedings; Vol. 2124). AIP Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5117068
King, Wong Ging ; Djun, Lee Man ; Affam, Augustine Chioma ; Chung, Wong Chee ; Swee, Ir. Wong Chee ; Adebayo, Johnson Olufemi. / Application of hybrid ultrasonic cavitation/adsorption and coagulation for treatment of palm oil mill effluent. 6th International Conference on Environment (ICENV 2018): Empowering Environment and Sustainable Engineering Nexus Through Green Technology. editor / Derek Chan Juinn Chieh. AIP Publishing, 2019. (AIP Conference Proceedings).
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title = "Application of hybrid ultrasonic cavitation/adsorption and coagulation for treatment of palm oil mill effluent",
abstract = "Ultrasound cavitation (US), coagulation treatment (natural coagulant chitosan and synthetic coagulant ferric chloride (FeCl3)) and activated carbon as adsorbent were applied for treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent (POME). The findings showed that for US alone, increasing pH >11 COD removal increased due to more hydroxyl radical (OH·) present in alkali solution phase. The COD, colour and TSS removal at pH 11 were 26.3{\%}, 52.7{\%} and 58.2{\%}, respectively after 60 min. Application of coagulants (Chitosan and FeCl3) required acidic medium for coagulation (i.e. between pH 4.5 and 5) to be effective. A dosage of 100 mg/L chitosan at pH 4.5 removed 15.4{\%} COD, 85.8{\%} colour and 97{\%} TSS from POME. A dosage of 450 mg/L FeCl3 at pH 5 removed 38.54{\%} COD, 88.6{\%} colour and 91.5{\%} TSS. It was observed that FeCl3 removed COD better than chitosan. Adsorption studies indicated that 800 mg/L of activated carbon removed 64.3{\%} COD, 99.16{\%} colour and 99.5{\%} TSS. The dosage needed for adsorption was much higher compared to chitosan and FeCl3 coagulants required. However, activated carbon could be recycled and reused. The hybrid treatment of ultrasound cavitation and coagulation (US-FeCl3) removed 56.3{\%} COD, 92.4{\%} colour and 96{\%} TSS. The US-Chitosan removed 35.1{\%} COD, 86.8{\%} colour and TSS 89.2{\%}. The eventual hybrid treatment of ultrasound cavitation, FeCl3 coagulation and activated carbon adsorption in series removed BOD5 89.7{\%}, COD 88.1{\%}, colour 99.9{\%} and TSS 99.5{\%} cumulatively. The final effluent concentration of the treated POME was in the accepted range set by Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia. The study showed that a combination of ultrasound cavitation, adsorption and coagulation (Chitosan and FeCl3) treatments were effective for removal of BOD5, COD, colour and TSS in POME wastewater. In addition, the efficiency of the treatment will further improve when these treatment technologies are combined.",
author = "King, {Wong Ging} and Djun, {Lee Man} and Affam, {Augustine Chioma} and Chung, {Wong Chee} and Swee, {Ir. Wong Chee} and Adebayo, {Johnson Olufemi}",
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King, WG, Djun, LM, Affam, AC, Chung, WC, Swee, IWC & Adebayo, JO 2019, Application of hybrid ultrasonic cavitation/adsorption and coagulation for treatment of palm oil mill effluent. in DCJ Chieh (ed.), 6th International Conference on Environment (ICENV 2018): Empowering Environment and Sustainable Engineering Nexus Through Green Technology., 020008, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 2124, AIP Publishing, 6th International Conference on Environment 2018, Penang, Malaysia, 11/12/18. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5117068

Application of hybrid ultrasonic cavitation/adsorption and coagulation for treatment of palm oil mill effluent. / King, Wong Ging; Djun, Lee Man; Affam, Augustine Chioma; Chung, Wong Chee; Swee, Ir. Wong Chee; Adebayo, Johnson Olufemi.

6th International Conference on Environment (ICENV 2018): Empowering Environment and Sustainable Engineering Nexus Through Green Technology. ed. / Derek Chan Juinn Chieh. AIP Publishing, 2019. 020008 (AIP Conference Proceedings; Vol. 2124).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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T1 - Application of hybrid ultrasonic cavitation/adsorption and coagulation for treatment of palm oil mill effluent

AU - King, Wong Ging

AU - Djun, Lee Man

AU - Affam, Augustine Chioma

AU - Chung, Wong Chee

AU - Swee, Ir. Wong Chee

AU - Adebayo, Johnson Olufemi

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N2 - Ultrasound cavitation (US), coagulation treatment (natural coagulant chitosan and synthetic coagulant ferric chloride (FeCl3)) and activated carbon as adsorbent were applied for treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent (POME). The findings showed that for US alone, increasing pH >11 COD removal increased due to more hydroxyl radical (OH·) present in alkali solution phase. The COD, colour and TSS removal at pH 11 were 26.3%, 52.7% and 58.2%, respectively after 60 min. Application of coagulants (Chitosan and FeCl3) required acidic medium for coagulation (i.e. between pH 4.5 and 5) to be effective. A dosage of 100 mg/L chitosan at pH 4.5 removed 15.4% COD, 85.8% colour and 97% TSS from POME. A dosage of 450 mg/L FeCl3 at pH 5 removed 38.54% COD, 88.6% colour and 91.5% TSS. It was observed that FeCl3 removed COD better than chitosan. Adsorption studies indicated that 800 mg/L of activated carbon removed 64.3% COD, 99.16% colour and 99.5% TSS. The dosage needed for adsorption was much higher compared to chitosan and FeCl3 coagulants required. However, activated carbon could be recycled and reused. The hybrid treatment of ultrasound cavitation and coagulation (US-FeCl3) removed 56.3% COD, 92.4% colour and 96% TSS. The US-Chitosan removed 35.1% COD, 86.8% colour and TSS 89.2%. The eventual hybrid treatment of ultrasound cavitation, FeCl3 coagulation and activated carbon adsorption in series removed BOD5 89.7%, COD 88.1%, colour 99.9% and TSS 99.5% cumulatively. The final effluent concentration of the treated POME was in the accepted range set by Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia. The study showed that a combination of ultrasound cavitation, adsorption and coagulation (Chitosan and FeCl3) treatments were effective for removal of BOD5, COD, colour and TSS in POME wastewater. In addition, the efficiency of the treatment will further improve when these treatment technologies are combined.

AB - Ultrasound cavitation (US), coagulation treatment (natural coagulant chitosan and synthetic coagulant ferric chloride (FeCl3)) and activated carbon as adsorbent were applied for treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent (POME). The findings showed that for US alone, increasing pH >11 COD removal increased due to more hydroxyl radical (OH·) present in alkali solution phase. The COD, colour and TSS removal at pH 11 were 26.3%, 52.7% and 58.2%, respectively after 60 min. Application of coagulants (Chitosan and FeCl3) required acidic medium for coagulation (i.e. between pH 4.5 and 5) to be effective. A dosage of 100 mg/L chitosan at pH 4.5 removed 15.4% COD, 85.8% colour and 97% TSS from POME. A dosage of 450 mg/L FeCl3 at pH 5 removed 38.54% COD, 88.6% colour and 91.5% TSS. It was observed that FeCl3 removed COD better than chitosan. Adsorption studies indicated that 800 mg/L of activated carbon removed 64.3% COD, 99.16% colour and 99.5% TSS. The dosage needed for adsorption was much higher compared to chitosan and FeCl3 coagulants required. However, activated carbon could be recycled and reused. The hybrid treatment of ultrasound cavitation and coagulation (US-FeCl3) removed 56.3% COD, 92.4% colour and 96% TSS. The US-Chitosan removed 35.1% COD, 86.8% colour and TSS 89.2%. The eventual hybrid treatment of ultrasound cavitation, FeCl3 coagulation and activated carbon adsorption in series removed BOD5 89.7%, COD 88.1%, colour 99.9% and TSS 99.5% cumulatively. The final effluent concentration of the treated POME was in the accepted range set by Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia. The study showed that a combination of ultrasound cavitation, adsorption and coagulation (Chitosan and FeCl3) treatments were effective for removal of BOD5, COD, colour and TSS in POME wastewater. In addition, the efficiency of the treatment will further improve when these treatment technologies are combined.

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King WG, Djun LM, Affam AC, Chung WC, Swee IWC, Adebayo JO. Application of hybrid ultrasonic cavitation/adsorption and coagulation for treatment of palm oil mill effluent. In Chieh DCJ, editor, 6th International Conference on Environment (ICENV 2018): Empowering Environment and Sustainable Engineering Nexus Through Green Technology. AIP Publishing. 2019. 020008. (AIP Conference Proceedings). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5117068