Antiamoebic Properties of Ceftriaxone and Zinc-Oxide–Cyclodextrin-Conjugated Ceftriaxone

Zinb Makhlouf, Noor Akbar, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Raza Shah, Ahmad M. Alharbi, Hasan Alfahemi, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui

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Acanthamoeba castellanii is a ubiquitous free-living amoeba capable of instigating keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis in humans. Treatment remains limited and inconsistent. Accordingly, there is a pressing need for novel compounds. Nanotechnology has been gaining attention for enhancing drug delivery and reducing toxicity. Previous work has shown that various antibiotic classes displayed antiamoebic activity. Herein, we employed two antibiotics: ampicillin and ceftriaxone, conjugated with the nanocarrier zinc oxide and β-cyclodextrin, and tested them against A. castellanii via amoebicidal, amoebistatic, encystment, excystment, cytopathogenicity, and cytotoxicity assays at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Notably, zinc oxide β-cyclodextrin ceftriaxone significantly inhibited A. castellanii growth and cytopathogenicity. Additionally, both zinc oxide β-cyclodextrin ceftriaxone and ceftriaxone markedly inhibited A. castellanii encystment. Furthermore, all the tested compounds displayed negligible cytotoxicity. However, minimal anti-excystment or amoebicidal effects were observed for the compounds. Accordingly, this novel nanoconjugation should be employed in further studies in hope of discovering novel anti-Acanthamoeba compounds.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1721
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 30 Nov 2022


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