An overview of fuel cell technology: Fundamentals and applications

Omar Z. Sharaf, Mehmet F. Orhan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1327 Citations (Scopus)


This paper provides a comprehensive review of fuel cell science and engineering with a focus on hydrogen fuel cells. The paper provides a concise, up-to-date review of fuel cell fundamentals; history; competing technologies; types; advantages and challenges; portable, stationary, and transportation applications and markets; current status of research-and-development; future targets; design levels; thermodynamic and electrochemical principles; system evaluation factors; and prospects and outlook. The most current data from industry and academia have been used with the relation between fuel cell fundamentals and applications highlighted throughout the manuscript.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)810-853
Number of pages44
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014


  • Anode
  • Cathode
  • Electrochemistry
  • Electrolyte
  • Fuel cell
  • Hydrogen
  • Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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