An Innovative PID Controller in Conjunction with DC Electric Motor for Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Muhammad Hussain*, Zulfiqar Ali Memon, Muhammad Akmal Chaudhary, Muhammad Siddique

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper introduces a hybrid vehicle concept, development and implementation using both an electric motor and a petrol engine to increase efficiency and reduce carbon footprint. Initially, a prototype of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is designed and the output values are measured, before a control system is developed and implemented to control the speed of the DC motor using an innovative microcontroller as the vehicle's electronic control unit (ECU), along with a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller using speed as an input. The prototype made integrated voltage, current, speed and torque sensors for feedback consequential in a closed loop control system, which successfully resulted in matching the speed input of a user-controlled pedal sensor. A user interface was developed to demonstrate the driver of the vehicle about significant variables such as the revolutions per minute (RPM) of the motor, the speed of the vehicle together with the current being drawn, and the voltage applied to the motor with overall power. A digital interface with pulse width modulation (PWM) capabilities was used to transmit a preset DC voltage to the speed controller for the output of a variable voltage from the Arduino. The results show that innovative PID controller algorithm can enhance the execution of electric motor speed at various set-points of Kp, Ki, Kd, to attain a reliable and stable speed. User interface delivers considerably better communication between the Arduino and PID controller for constraints of maximum and stable speed and operational safety.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-34
Number of pages15
JournalSSRG International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020


  • PID controller
  • DC Motor
  • Speed control
  • Carbon emission


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