An architecture for emotional facial expressions as social signals

Ruth Aylett, Christopher Ritter, Mei Yii Lim, Frank Broz, Peter McKenna, Ingo Keller, Gnanathusharan Rajendran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
308 Downloads (Pure)


We focus on affective architecture issues relating to the generation of expressive facial behaviour, critique approaches that treat expressive behaviour as only a mirror of internal state rather than as also a social signal and discuss the advantages of combining the two approaches. Using the FAtiMA architecture, we analyse the requirements for generating expressive behavior as social signals at both reactive and cognitive levels. We discuss how facial expressions can be generated in a dynamic fashion. We propose generic architectural mechanisms to meet these requirements based on an explicit mind-body loop and Theory of Mind (ToM) processing. A illustrative scenario is given.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-305
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Affecticve Computing
Issue number2
Early online date19 Mar 2019
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Intelligent agents
  • affective computing
  • cognitive informatics
  • interactive systems
  • software architecture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Human-Computer Interaction


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