Ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents as novel soil washing agent for lead removal

Soumyadeep Mukhopadhyay, Sumona Mukherjee, Nor Farihah Adnan, Adeeb Hayyan, Maan Hayyan, Mohd Ali Hashim, Bhaskar Sen Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)
258 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a new class of biodegradable and low cost solvents analogous to ionic liquids. In this study, DESs have been used to remove lead from a landfill soil for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing choline chloride, a quaternary ammonium salt with different hydrogen bond donors such asfructose, sucrose, glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural biodegradable surfactant saponin extracted from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to enhance their efficiency. The 10% solution of fruit-based DESs containing fructose and sucrose demonstrated lead removal of about 31% and 25% respectively, which increased on additionof saponin. Up to 72% Pb could be removed with a combination of 40% fructose-based DES and 1% saponin or 10% fructose-based DES and 2% saponin. For synthetic DESs containing glycerol and ethylene glycol, saponin addition resulted in marked improvement of up to 54%. Mildly alkaline DESs supplied H+ acting as Lewis acid which replaced the lead cations from the organic carbon electron donors. Slightly alkaline DESs performed better when mixed with acidic saponin solution which supplied H+. This study will open up new possibilities into the application of natural compound basedDESs for soil remediation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)316-322
Number of pages7
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Volume294
Early online date15 Feb 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2016

Keywords

  • Soil washing
  • Deep eutectic solvents
  • Sapindus mukorossi
  • Lead

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