Advancing Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes: Novel Sn and Hard Carbon Architectures for Long-Term Stability and High Capacity

Shahid Rasul, Rana Faisal Shahzad, Rana Abdul Shakoor, Abdul Wasy Zia

Research output: Contribution to conferencePosterpeer-review


Tin (Sn) is a promising candidate for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) because of its high theoretical capacity, abundance, and low cost. However, Sn suffers from large volumetric expansion during charging and discharging causing cracking and degradation of the electrode material. Thus, development of new Sn based interfaces and architectures is crucial that can accommodate the volume changes and improve cyclic performance. In this study, we present the development of a novel Sn and hard carbon (h-carbon) architectures for LIB anodes, with a focus on improving their long-term stability and high capacity. The composite architectures is achieved through nano Physical Vapor Deposition (nano-PVD) technique by depositing Sn and hard carbon on Copper substrate at the room temperature and a high temperature (470 oC). Our results show that the Sn and h-carbon architectures exhibit significantly improved long-term cycling stability (> 94% coulombic efficiency after 25 cycles) and higher capacities reaching upto 915 mAh g-1 at 2nd cycle after SEI formation. The resultant microstructures especially at 400 oC created a multi-layer interface with Cu-Sn and h-carbon. The newly developed, so called soft (Cu-Sn) and a hard interface (h-Carbon) provides a cushion against volumetric expansion of Sn microstructures. These findings demonstrate the potential of Sn and hard carbon as promising anode materials for advancing the performance of LIBs.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 11 Sept 2023
EventFaraday Institution Conference 2023 - The Teaching and Learning Building, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Duration: 11 Sept 202313 Sept 2023


ConferenceFaraday Institution Conference 2023
Abbreviated titleFaraday2023
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Internet address


  • lithium
  • batteries
  • hard carbon
  • PVD
  • plasma
  • energy storage
  • NetZero
  • Material design optimization
  • Coatings


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