Naturally fractured reservoirs, within which porosity, permeability pathways and/or impermeable barriers formed by the fracture network interact with those of the host rock matrix to influence fluid flow and storage, can occur in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks. These reservoirs constitute a substantial percentage of remaining hydrocarbon resources; they create exploration targets in otherwise impermeable rocks, including under-explored crystalline basement, and they can be used as geological stores for anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Their complex fluid flow behaviour during production has traditionally proved difficult to predict, causing a large degree of uncertainty in reservoir development. The applied study of naturally fractured reservoirs seeks to constrain this uncertainty and maximize production by developing new understanding, and is necessarily a broad, integrated, interdisciplinary topic. Some of the methods, challenges and advances in characterizing the interplay of rock matrix and fracture networks relevant to fluid flow and hydrocarbon recovery are reviewed and discussed via the contributions in this volume.