Adiabatically tapered hyperbolic metamaterials for dispersion control of high-K waves

Paul R. West, Nathaniel Kinsey, Marcello Ferrera, Alexander V. Kildishev, Vladimir M. Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) have shown great promise in the optical and quantum communities due to their extremely large, broadband photonic density of states. This feature is a direct consequence of supporting photonic modes with unbounded k-vectors. While these materials support such high-k waves, they are intrinsically confined inside the HMM and cannot propagate into the far-field, rendering them impractical for many applications. Here, we demonstrate how the magnitude of k-vectors can be engineered as the propagating radiation passes through media of differing dispersion relations (including type II HMMs and dielectrics) in the in-plane direction. The total outcoupling efficiency of waves in the in-plane direction is shown to be on average 2 orders of magnitude better than standard out-of-plane outcoupling methods. In addition, the outcoupling can be further enhanced using a proposed tapered HMM waveguide that is fabricated using a shadowed glancing angle deposition technique; thereby proving the feasibility of the proposed device. Applications for this technique include converting high-k waves to low-k waves that can be out-coupled into free-space and creating extremely high-k waves that are quickly quenched. Most importantly, this method of in-plane outcoupling acts as a bridge through which waves can cross between the regimes of low-k waves in classical dielectric materials and the high-k waves in HMMs with strongly reduced reflective losses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)498-505
Number of pages8
JournalNano Letters
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2015

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Metamaterials
Photonics
photonics
far fields
Waveguides
broadband
waveguides
Radiation
radiation

Keywords

  • glancing angle deposition
  • hyperbolic metamaterials
  • Metamaterials
  • plasmonics
  • purcell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

West, P. R., Kinsey, N., Ferrera, M., Kildishev, A. V., Shalaev, V. M., & Boltasseva, A. (2015). Adiabatically tapered hyperbolic metamaterials for dispersion control of high-K waves. Nano Letters, 15(1), 498-505. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl5038352
West, Paul R. ; Kinsey, Nathaniel ; Ferrera, Marcello ; Kildishev, Alexander V. ; Shalaev, Vladimir M. ; Boltasseva, Alexandra. / Adiabatically tapered hyperbolic metamaterials for dispersion control of high-K waves. In: Nano Letters. 2015 ; Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 498-505.
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West, PR, Kinsey, N, Ferrera, M, Kildishev, AV, Shalaev, VM & Boltasseva, A 2015, 'Adiabatically tapered hyperbolic metamaterials for dispersion control of high-K waves', Nano Letters, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 498-505. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl5038352

Adiabatically tapered hyperbolic metamaterials for dispersion control of high-K waves. / West, Paul R.; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Ferrera, Marcello; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Boltasseva, Alexandra.

In: Nano Letters, Vol. 15, No. 1, 14.01.2015, p. 498-505.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Adiabatically tapered hyperbolic metamaterials for dispersion control of high-K waves

AU - West, Paul R.

AU - Kinsey, Nathaniel

AU - Ferrera, Marcello

AU - Kildishev, Alexander V.

AU - Shalaev, Vladimir M.

AU - Boltasseva, Alexandra

PY - 2015/1/14

Y1 - 2015/1/14

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AB - Hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs) have shown great promise in the optical and quantum communities due to their extremely large, broadband photonic density of states. This feature is a direct consequence of supporting photonic modes with unbounded k-vectors. While these materials support such high-k waves, they are intrinsically confined inside the HMM and cannot propagate into the far-field, rendering them impractical for many applications. Here, we demonstrate how the magnitude of k-vectors can be engineered as the propagating radiation passes through media of differing dispersion relations (including type II HMMs and dielectrics) in the in-plane direction. The total outcoupling efficiency of waves in the in-plane direction is shown to be on average 2 orders of magnitude better than standard out-of-plane outcoupling methods. In addition, the outcoupling can be further enhanced using a proposed tapered HMM waveguide that is fabricated using a shadowed glancing angle deposition technique; thereby proving the feasibility of the proposed device. Applications for this technique include converting high-k waves to low-k waves that can be out-coupled into free-space and creating extremely high-k waves that are quickly quenched. Most importantly, this method of in-plane outcoupling acts as a bridge through which waves can cross between the regimes of low-k waves in classical dielectric materials and the high-k waves in HMMs with strongly reduced reflective losses.

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