Acute toxicity of an acid mine drainage mixing zone to juvenile bluegill and largemouth bass

Theodore B Henry, Elise R Irwin, John M Grizzle, Mark L Wildhaber, William G Brumbaugh

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    The toxicity of an acid mixing zone produced at the confluence of a stream that was contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) and a pH-neutral stream was investigated in toxicity tests with juvenile bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Fish mortalities in instream cages located in the mixing zone, below the mixing zone, and upstream in both tributaries were compared to determine relative toxicity at each site. In all tests and for both species, significantly higher mortality was observed in the mixing zone than at any other location, including the acid stream, which had lower pH (2.9-4.3). The mixing zone was defined chemically by rapid precipitation of dissolved aluminum and iron, which arrived from the low-pH stream, and by the presence of white precipitates, which were attached to the substratum and which extended below the confluence. Possible seasonal changes in mixing zone toxicity were investigated by conducting field tests with bluegill in June, July, and August 1996 and in January 1997 and by conducting field tests with largemouth bass in April and May 1997. Toxicity was not significantly different at the extremes of temperature, pH, and metal concentration that occurred in June and July, as compared with January. Toxicity was significantly lower in August; however, elevated stream discharge during the August test may have disturbed mixing zone characteristics. High toxicity in AMD mixing zones may lower the survival of fishes in streams, reduce available habitat, and impede movements of migratory fish.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)919-928
    Number of pages10
    JournalTransactions of the American Fisheries Society
    Volume128
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1999

    Keywords

    • COAL
    • TRANSPORT
    • COLORADO
    • CHEMISTRY
    • MORTALITY
    • WATERS
    • ALUMINUM
    • MOUNTAIN STREAM
    • RIVER
    • SALMO-TRUTTA L

    Cite this

    Henry, Theodore B ; Irwin, Elise R ; Grizzle, John M ; Wildhaber, Mark L ; Brumbaugh, William G. / Acute toxicity of an acid mine drainage mixing zone to juvenile bluegill and largemouth bass. In: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 1999 ; Vol. 128, No. 5. pp. 919-928.
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    abstract = "The toxicity of an acid mixing zone produced at the confluence of a stream that was contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) and a pH-neutral stream was investigated in toxicity tests with juvenile bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Fish mortalities in instream cages located in the mixing zone, below the mixing zone, and upstream in both tributaries were compared to determine relative toxicity at each site. In all tests and for both species, significantly higher mortality was observed in the mixing zone than at any other location, including the acid stream, which had lower pH (2.9-4.3). The mixing zone was defined chemically by rapid precipitation of dissolved aluminum and iron, which arrived from the low-pH stream, and by the presence of white precipitates, which were attached to the substratum and which extended below the confluence. Possible seasonal changes in mixing zone toxicity were investigated by conducting field tests with bluegill in June, July, and August 1996 and in January 1997 and by conducting field tests with largemouth bass in April and May 1997. Toxicity was not significantly different at the extremes of temperature, pH, and metal concentration that occurred in June and July, as compared with January. Toxicity was significantly lower in August; however, elevated stream discharge during the August test may have disturbed mixing zone characteristics. High toxicity in AMD mixing zones may lower the survival of fishes in streams, reduce available habitat, and impede movements of migratory fish.",
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    Acute toxicity of an acid mine drainage mixing zone to juvenile bluegill and largemouth bass. / Henry, Theodore B; Irwin, Elise R; Grizzle, John M; Wildhaber, Mark L; Brumbaugh, William G.

    In: Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, Vol. 128, No. 5, 1999, p. 919-928.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - Acute toxicity of an acid mine drainage mixing zone to juvenile bluegill and largemouth bass

    AU - Henry, Theodore B

    AU - Irwin, Elise R

    AU - Grizzle, John M

    AU - Wildhaber, Mark L

    AU - Brumbaugh, William G

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    AB - The toxicity of an acid mixing zone produced at the confluence of a stream that was contaminated by acid mine drainage (AMD) and a pH-neutral stream was investigated in toxicity tests with juvenile bluegill Lepomis macrochirus and largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Fish mortalities in instream cages located in the mixing zone, below the mixing zone, and upstream in both tributaries were compared to determine relative toxicity at each site. In all tests and for both species, significantly higher mortality was observed in the mixing zone than at any other location, including the acid stream, which had lower pH (2.9-4.3). The mixing zone was defined chemically by rapid precipitation of dissolved aluminum and iron, which arrived from the low-pH stream, and by the presence of white precipitates, which were attached to the substratum and which extended below the confluence. Possible seasonal changes in mixing zone toxicity were investigated by conducting field tests with bluegill in June, July, and August 1996 and in January 1997 and by conducting field tests with largemouth bass in April and May 1997. Toxicity was not significantly different at the extremes of temperature, pH, and metal concentration that occurred in June and July, as compared with January. Toxicity was significantly lower in August; however, elevated stream discharge during the August test may have disturbed mixing zone characteristics. High toxicity in AMD mixing zones may lower the survival of fishes in streams, reduce available habitat, and impede movements of migratory fish.

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    KW - WATERS

    KW - ALUMINUM

    KW - MOUNTAIN STREAM

    KW - RIVER

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    M3 - Article

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