Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance

Tanja Stratmann, Lidia Lins, Autun Purser, Yann Marcon, Clara F. Rodrigues, Ascensaõ Ravara, Marina R. Cunha, Erik Simon-Lledó, Daniel O. B. Jones, Andrew K. Sweetman, Kevin Köser, Dick van Oevelen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Future deep-sea mining for polymetallic nodules in abyssal plains will negatively impact the benthic ecosystem, but it is largely unclear whether this ecosystem will be able to recover from mining disturbance and if so, to what extent and at what timescale. During the DISturbance and reCOLonization (DISCOL) experiment, a total of 22% of the seafloor within a 10.8 km2 circular area of the nodule-rich seafloor in the Peru Basin (SE Pacific) was ploughed in 1989 to bury nodules and mix the surface sediment. This area was revisited 0.1, 0.5, 3, 7, and 26 years after the disturbance to assess macrofauna, invertebrate megafauna and fish density and diversity. We used this unique abyssal faunal time series to develop carbon-based food web models for each point in the time series using the linear inverse modeling approach for sediments subjected to two disturbance levels: (1) outside the plough tracks; not directly disturbed by plough, but probably suffered from additional sedimentation; and (2) inside the plough tracks. Total faunal carbon stock was always higher outside plough tracks compared with inside plough tracks. After 26 years, the carbon stock inside the plough tracks was 54% of the carbon stock outside plough tracks. Deposit feeders were least affected by the disturbance, with modeled respiration, external predation, and excretion rates being reduced by only 2.6% inside plough tracks compared with outside plough tracks after 26 years. In contrast, the respiration rate of filter and suspension feeders was 79.5% lower in the plough tracks after 26 years. The total system throughput (T..), i.e., the total sum of modeled carbon flows in the food web, was higher throughout the time series outside plough tracks compared with the corresponding inside plough tracks area and was lowest inside plough tracks directly after the disturbance (8.63 × 10-3 ± 1.58 × 10-5 mmol Cm-2d-1). Even 26 years after the DISCOL disturbance, the discrepancy of T.. between outside and inside plough tracks was still 56%. Hence, C cycling within the faunal compartments of an abyssal plain ecosystem remains reduced 26 years after physical disturbance, and a longer period is required for the system to recover from such a small-scale sediment disturbance experiment.

LanguageEnglish
Pages4131-4145
Number of pages15
JournalBiogeosciences
Volume15
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - 6 Jul 2018

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abyssal plain
plows
disturbance
carbon
recolonization
time series
carbon sinks
food web
time series analysis
respiration
seafloor
sediment
deep sea mining
physical disturbance
deposit feeder
sediments
ecosystem
food webs
ecosystems
excretion

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Stratmann, T., Lins, L., Purser, A., Marcon, Y., Rodrigues, C. F., Ravara, A., ... van Oevelen, D. (2018). Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance. Biogeosciences, 15(13), 4131-4145. DOI: 10.5194/bg-15-4131-2018
Stratmann, Tanja ; Lins, Lidia ; Purser, Autun ; Marcon, Yann ; Rodrigues, Clara F. ; Ravara, Ascensaõ ; Cunha, Marina R. ; Simon-Lledó, Erik ; Jones, Daniel O. B. ; Sweetman, Andrew K. ; Köser, Kevin ; van Oevelen, Dick. / Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance. In: Biogeosciences. 2018 ; Vol. 15, No. 13. pp. 4131-4145
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abstract = "Future deep-sea mining for polymetallic nodules in abyssal plains will negatively impact the benthic ecosystem, but it is largely unclear whether this ecosystem will be able to recover from mining disturbance and if so, to what extent and at what timescale. During the DISturbance and reCOLonization (DISCOL) experiment, a total of 22{\%} of the seafloor within a 10.8 km2 circular area of the nodule-rich seafloor in the Peru Basin (SE Pacific) was ploughed in 1989 to bury nodules and mix the surface sediment. This area was revisited 0.1, 0.5, 3, 7, and 26 years after the disturbance to assess macrofauna, invertebrate megafauna and fish density and diversity. We used this unique abyssal faunal time series to develop carbon-based food web models for each point in the time series using the linear inverse modeling approach for sediments subjected to two disturbance levels: (1) outside the plough tracks; not directly disturbed by plough, but probably suffered from additional sedimentation; and (2) inside the plough tracks. Total faunal carbon stock was always higher outside plough tracks compared with inside plough tracks. After 26 years, the carbon stock inside the plough tracks was 54{\%} of the carbon stock outside plough tracks. Deposit feeders were least affected by the disturbance, with modeled respiration, external predation, and excretion rates being reduced by only 2.6{\%} inside plough tracks compared with outside plough tracks after 26 years. In contrast, the respiration rate of filter and suspension feeders was 79.5{\%} lower in the plough tracks after 26 years. The total system throughput (T..), i.e., the total sum of modeled carbon flows in the food web, was higher throughout the time series outside plough tracks compared with the corresponding inside plough tracks area and was lowest inside plough tracks directly after the disturbance (8.63 × 10-3 ± 1.58 × 10-5 mmol Cm-2d-1). Even 26 years after the DISCOL disturbance, the discrepancy of T.. between outside and inside plough tracks was still 56{\%}. Hence, C cycling within the faunal compartments of an abyssal plain ecosystem remains reduced 26 years after physical disturbance, and a longer period is required for the system to recover from such a small-scale sediment disturbance experiment.",
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Stratmann, T, Lins, L, Purser, A, Marcon, Y, Rodrigues, CF, Ravara, A, Cunha, MR, Simon-Lledó, E, Jones, DOB, Sweetman, AK, Köser, K & van Oevelen, D 2018, 'Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance' Biogeosciences, vol. 15, no. 13, pp. 4131-4145. DOI: 10.5194/bg-15-4131-2018

Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance. / Stratmann, Tanja; Lins, Lidia; Purser, Autun; Marcon, Yann; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Ravara, Ascensaõ; Cunha, Marina R.; Simon-Lledó, Erik; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Sweetman, Andrew K.; Köser, Kevin; van Oevelen, Dick.

In: Biogeosciences, Vol. 15, No. 13, 06.07.2018, p. 4131-4145.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance

AU - Stratmann,Tanja

AU - Lins,Lidia

AU - Purser,Autun

AU - Marcon,Yann

AU - Rodrigues,Clara F.

AU - Ravara,Ascensaõ

AU - Cunha,Marina R.

AU - Simon-Lledó,Erik

AU - Jones,Daniel O. B.

AU - Sweetman,Andrew K.

AU - Köser,Kevin

AU - van Oevelen,Dick

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N2 - Future deep-sea mining for polymetallic nodules in abyssal plains will negatively impact the benthic ecosystem, but it is largely unclear whether this ecosystem will be able to recover from mining disturbance and if so, to what extent and at what timescale. During the DISturbance and reCOLonization (DISCOL) experiment, a total of 22% of the seafloor within a 10.8 km2 circular area of the nodule-rich seafloor in the Peru Basin (SE Pacific) was ploughed in 1989 to bury nodules and mix the surface sediment. This area was revisited 0.1, 0.5, 3, 7, and 26 years after the disturbance to assess macrofauna, invertebrate megafauna and fish density and diversity. We used this unique abyssal faunal time series to develop carbon-based food web models for each point in the time series using the linear inverse modeling approach for sediments subjected to two disturbance levels: (1) outside the plough tracks; not directly disturbed by plough, but probably suffered from additional sedimentation; and (2) inside the plough tracks. Total faunal carbon stock was always higher outside plough tracks compared with inside plough tracks. After 26 years, the carbon stock inside the plough tracks was 54% of the carbon stock outside plough tracks. Deposit feeders were least affected by the disturbance, with modeled respiration, external predation, and excretion rates being reduced by only 2.6% inside plough tracks compared with outside plough tracks after 26 years. In contrast, the respiration rate of filter and suspension feeders was 79.5% lower in the plough tracks after 26 years. The total system throughput (T..), i.e., the total sum of modeled carbon flows in the food web, was higher throughout the time series outside plough tracks compared with the corresponding inside plough tracks area and was lowest inside plough tracks directly after the disturbance (8.63 × 10-3 ± 1.58 × 10-5 mmol Cm-2d-1). Even 26 years after the DISCOL disturbance, the discrepancy of T.. between outside and inside plough tracks was still 56%. Hence, C cycling within the faunal compartments of an abyssal plain ecosystem remains reduced 26 years after physical disturbance, and a longer period is required for the system to recover from such a small-scale sediment disturbance experiment.

AB - Future deep-sea mining for polymetallic nodules in abyssal plains will negatively impact the benthic ecosystem, but it is largely unclear whether this ecosystem will be able to recover from mining disturbance and if so, to what extent and at what timescale. During the DISturbance and reCOLonization (DISCOL) experiment, a total of 22% of the seafloor within a 10.8 km2 circular area of the nodule-rich seafloor in the Peru Basin (SE Pacific) was ploughed in 1989 to bury nodules and mix the surface sediment. This area was revisited 0.1, 0.5, 3, 7, and 26 years after the disturbance to assess macrofauna, invertebrate megafauna and fish density and diversity. We used this unique abyssal faunal time series to develop carbon-based food web models for each point in the time series using the linear inverse modeling approach for sediments subjected to two disturbance levels: (1) outside the plough tracks; not directly disturbed by plough, but probably suffered from additional sedimentation; and (2) inside the plough tracks. Total faunal carbon stock was always higher outside plough tracks compared with inside plough tracks. After 26 years, the carbon stock inside the plough tracks was 54% of the carbon stock outside plough tracks. Deposit feeders were least affected by the disturbance, with modeled respiration, external predation, and excretion rates being reduced by only 2.6% inside plough tracks compared with outside plough tracks after 26 years. In contrast, the respiration rate of filter and suspension feeders was 79.5% lower in the plough tracks after 26 years. The total system throughput (T..), i.e., the total sum of modeled carbon flows in the food web, was higher throughout the time series outside plough tracks compared with the corresponding inside plough tracks area and was lowest inside plough tracks directly after the disturbance (8.63 × 10-3 ± 1.58 × 10-5 mmol Cm-2d-1). Even 26 years after the DISCOL disturbance, the discrepancy of T.. between outside and inside plough tracks was still 56%. Hence, C cycling within the faunal compartments of an abyssal plain ecosystem remains reduced 26 years after physical disturbance, and a longer period is required for the system to recover from such a small-scale sediment disturbance experiment.

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Stratmann T, Lins L, Purser A, Marcon Y, Rodrigues CF, Ravara A et al. Abyssal plain faunal carbon flows remain depressed 26 years after a simulated deep-sea mining disturbance. Biogeosciences. 2018 Jul 6;15(13):4131-4145. Available from, DOI: 10.5194/bg-15-4131-2018