A survey on physarum polycephalum intelligent foraging behaviour and bio-inspired applications

Abubakr Awad, Wei Pang, David Lusseau, George MacLeod Coghill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
43 Downloads (Pure)


In recent years, research on Physarum polycephalum has become more popular after Nakagaki (AIR 407: 6803-470, 2000) performed their famous experiment showing that Physarum was able to find the shortest route through a maze. Subsequent researches have confirmed the ability of Physarum-inspired algorithms to solve a wide range of real-world applications. In contrast to previous reviews that either focus on biological aspects or bio-inspired applications, here we present a comprehensive review that highlights recent Physarum polycephalum biological aspects, mathematical models, and Physarum bio-inspired algorithms and their applications. The novelty of this review stems from our exploration of Physarum intelligent behaviour in competition settings. Further, we have presented our new model to simulate Physarum in competition, where multiple Physarum interact with each other and with their environments. The bio-inspired Physarum in competition algorithms proved to have great potentials for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-26
Number of pages26
JournalArtificial Intelligence Review
Issue number1
Early online date16 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Bio-inspired algorithms
  • Competition modelling
  • Physarum polycephalum
  • Slime mould

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Artificial Intelligence


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