Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) is a planar waveguide structure, which offers the advantages of low profile, ease of fabrication, low insertion loss, and compatibility with other planar circuits. SIW end-fire antennas have drawn broad interests due to the potential applications in aircraft, missile, and radar systems. However, this planar structure suffers from narrow bandwidth due to severe impedance mismatch at the radiating aperture. Meanwhile, the narrow radiating aperture of SIW end-fire antennas also deteriorates the radiation performance. This paper presents a detailed review upon the most recent research efforts concerning the improvement of antenna performances. They are discussed and classified into three different categories from the aspect of polarization properties: horizontally polarized, vertically polarized, and circularly polarized SIW end-fire antennas. Some practical difficulties for the development of SIW end-fire antennas are pointed out and effective approaches are also provided. A wide variety of antenna examples are presented with respect to theoretical and experimental results.