A Reconfigurable 3-D-Stacked SPAD Imager with In-Pixel Histogramming for Flash LIDAR or High-Speed Time-of-Flight Imaging

Sam W. Hutchings, Nick Johnston, Istvan Gyongy, Tarek Al Abbas, Neale A. W. Dutton, Max Tyler, Susan Chan, Jonathan Leach, Robert K. Henderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A 256 × 256 single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) sensor integrated into a 3-D-stacked 90-nm 1P4M/40-nm 1P8M process is reported for flash light detection and ranging (LIDAR) or high-speed direct time-of-flight (ToF) 3-D imaging. The sensor bottom tier is composed of a 64 × 64 matrix of 36.72 μm pitch modular photon processing units which operate from shared 4 × 4 SPADs at 9.18 μm pitch and 51% fill-factor. A 16 × 14 bit counter array integrates photon counts or events to compress data to 31.4 Mb/s at 30-frame/s readout over 8 I/O operating at 100 MHz. The pixel-parallel multi-event time-to-digital converter (TDC) approach employs a programmable internal or external clock for 0.56-560-ns time bin resolution. In conjunction with a per-pixel correlator, the power is reduced to less than 100 mW in practical daylight ranging scenarios. Examples of ranging and high-speed 3-D ToF applications are given.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2947-2956
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Volume54
Issue number11
Early online date25 Sep 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019

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Avalanche diodes
Image sensors
Photons
Pixels
Imaging techniques
Correlators
Sensors
Bins
Clocks
Processing

Keywords

  • 3-D imaging
  • CMOS
  • direct time of flight (dToF)
  • histogramming
  • image sensor
  • light detection and ranging (LIDAR)
  • single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs)
  • TDC sharing architecture
  • time of flight (ToF)
  • time-to-digital converter (TDC)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Hutchings, S. W., Johnston, N., Gyongy, I., Al Abbas, T., Dutton, N. A. W., Tyler, M., ... Henderson, R. K. (2019). A Reconfigurable 3-D-Stacked SPAD Imager with In-Pixel Histogramming for Flash LIDAR or High-Speed Time-of-Flight Imaging. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 54(11), 2947-2956. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2019.2939083
Hutchings, Sam W. ; Johnston, Nick ; Gyongy, Istvan ; Al Abbas, Tarek ; Dutton, Neale A. W. ; Tyler, Max ; Chan, Susan ; Leach, Jonathan ; Henderson, Robert K. / A Reconfigurable 3-D-Stacked SPAD Imager with In-Pixel Histogramming for Flash LIDAR or High-Speed Time-of-Flight Imaging. In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 2019 ; Vol. 54, No. 11. pp. 2947-2956.
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Hutchings, SW, Johnston, N, Gyongy, I, Al Abbas, T, Dutton, NAW, Tyler, M, Chan, S, Leach, J & Henderson, RK 2019, 'A Reconfigurable 3-D-Stacked SPAD Imager with In-Pixel Histogramming for Flash LIDAR or High-Speed Time-of-Flight Imaging', IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 2947-2956. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2019.2939083

A Reconfigurable 3-D-Stacked SPAD Imager with In-Pixel Histogramming for Flash LIDAR or High-Speed Time-of-Flight Imaging. / Hutchings, Sam W.; Johnston, Nick; Gyongy, Istvan; Al Abbas, Tarek; Dutton, Neale A. W.; Tyler, Max; Chan, Susan; Leach, Jonathan; Henderson, Robert K.

In: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 54, No. 11, 11.2019, p. 2947-2956.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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