A layer-level multi-scale architecture for lung cancer classification with fluorescence lifetime imaging endomicroscopy

Qiang Wang, James R. Hopgood, Susan Fernandes, Neil Finlayson, Gareth O. S. Williams, Ahsan Akram, Kevin Dhaliwal, Marta Vallejo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
30 Downloads (Pure)


In this paper, we introduce our unique dataset of fluorescence lifetime imaging endo/microscopy (FLIM), containing over 100,000 different FLIM images collected from 18 pairs of cancer/non-cancer human lung tissues of 18 patients by our custom fibre-based FLIM system. The aim of providing this dataset is that more researchers from relevant fields can push forward this particular area of research. Afterwards, we describe the best practice of image post-processing suitable per the dataset. In addition, we propose a novel hierarchically aggregated multi-scale architecture to improve the binary classification performance of classic CNNs. The proposed model integrates the advantages of multi-scale feature extraction at different levels, where layer-wise global information is aggregated with branch-wise local information. We integrate the proposal, namely ResNetZ, into ResNet, and appraise it on the FLIM dataset. Since ResNetZ can be configured with a shortcut connection and the aggregations by Addition or Concatenation, we first evaluate the impact of different configurations on the performance. We thoroughly examine various ResNetZ variants to demonstrate the superiority. We also compare our model with a feature-level multi-scale model to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of multi-scale architectures at different levels.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18881-18894
Number of pages14
JournalNeural Computing and Applications
Issue number21
Early online date25 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Convolutional neural networks
  • Fluorescence lifetime imaging endomicroscopy
  • Hierarchically aggregated architectures
  • Lung cancer classification
  • Multi-scale feature extraction
  • ResNetZ

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Artificial Intelligence


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