A Feasibility Study of Geothermal Energy Extraction in the Baram Basin, Sarawak Using Numerical Reservoir Simulation Based on Analogue Data

M. Bataee, R. Carter, Z. Hamdi, Z. Bennour, H. K. B. Mahmud

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Renewable energy sources are becoming favorable choices nowadays, due to Regulators’ desire to respond to the challenges of climate action and meet the need for global reduction of CO2. Geothermal energy is a recognized source of clean, low carbon renewable energy, however, selecting an optimized location for extracting this heat energy from the subsurface depends on many factors, and there are always risks involved with obtaining accurate and realistic values for the key parameters. In this project, the feasibility of geothermal energy extraction was studied using reservoir simulation, based on publicly available analogue data. The investigation focused on the Baram Basin, located in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. Published data from existing fields and recent exploration and appraisal activities are used for estimating the likely range for both surface and subsurface parameters. Different geothermal development scenarios were run with and without injection wells to investigate the effect of formation pressure on sustainable water production. Results of this study indicate that optimum well spacing of 300m was predicted for maximum sustainable heat extraction. Results of the work compare the amount of enthalpy derived from production with estimates of Levelized Cost of Electricity. Simplified economics were run to explore commercial competitiveness. Sensitivity analysis has explored the key risk factors in this study and reveals the likely ranges for recoverable thermal energy for a profitable project. Geothermal energy sets an example for other energy providers by offering renewable baseload power, reducing emissions, enhancing energy independence, creating jobs, utilizing heat for various applications, and emphasizing long-term resource availability, inspiring greater sustainability, reliability, and environmental stewardship in energy generation practices.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSPE Offshore Europe Conference & Exhibition 2023
PublisherSociety of Petroleum Engineers
ISBN (Print)9781613999936
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sept 2023
EventSPE Offshore Europe Conference & Exhibition 2023 - Aberdeen, United Kingdom
Duration: 3 Sept 20237 Sept 2023


ConferenceSPE Offshore Europe Conference & Exhibition 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


  • enthalpy of production
  • Feasibility study
  • geothermal energy
  • simple economics
  • well spacing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

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