A Critical Review of Current and Future Options for Wind Farm Participation in Ancillary Service Provision

Matthew Cole*, David Campos-Gaona, Adam Stock, Marcel Nedd

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
61 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents a critical review, from a wind farm control perspective, of different methodologies in the open literature that enable wind farms to participate in ancillary service provision. Firstly, it considers the services currently provided in power systems with high levels of wind generation (specifically, Denmark, Ireland, and Great Britain), reviewing current regulatory frameworks and recommendations. Secondly, it reviews the ancillary service markets that wind farms do not currently participate in, considering the barriers to entry and discussing potential solutions using a proper control-enabled framework. Thirdly, it also considers the future perspective for wind farm participation in ancillary service provision, including a review of the body of published academic research on wind farm participation in ancillary service provision. Finally, this review concludes by suggesting where the gaps are in the academic literature, and subsequently suggests future work. Two examples are the disconnect between the mechanical and farm side approaches with power-system-based modelling, and how much wind farm modelling is very-low-fidelity-omittedkey aspects such as wake effects and component fatigue analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1324
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 27 Jan 2023


  • ancillary services
  • droop control
  • virtual synchronous machines
  • wind farm control
  • wind power

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Fuel Technology
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)
  • Control and Optimization
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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